1. the struggles that results from incompatible needs, feeling,

1.     
Introduction

           

            Conflict
means a situation in which someone believe that his or her own needs have been
denied. In the workplace, it refers to the struggles that results from
incompatible needs, feeling, thought or demands within person or between two or
more people. Conflict is an inseparable part of people’s life. It is a
perpetual gift of life, although varying views of it may be held. Some may view
conflict as a negative situation which must be avoided at any cost. Others may
see it as a phenomenon which necessitates management. Still, others may
consider conflict as an exciting opportunity for personal growth and so try to
use it to their best advantage. Wherever one may fall on this continuum of
viewpoints concerning conflict, seldom would one expect to be in a continual
state of conflict as the basis for employment.

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            Conflict
is a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in
which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate the rivals.
It is also defined from communication perspective as “an expressed struggle
between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals,
scarce rewards and interference from other parties in achieving their goals.
According to Wikipedia, organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by
the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests between formal
authority and power and those individuals and groups affected. There are
disputes over how revenues should be divided, and how long and hard people
should work. There are jurisdictional disagreements among individual
departments and between unions and management. There are subtle forms of conflict
involving rivalries, jealousies, personality clashes, role-definitions and
struggles for power and favour. There is also conflict within individuals –
between competing needs and demands – to which individuals respond in different
ways. Since conflict is seemingly unavoidable, it is obviously necessary for
managers to be able to recognize the source of the conflict, to view it’s
constructive as well as destructive potential, to learn how to manage conflict
and to implement conflict resolution technique in a practical way. However, in
the last 25 years, many scholars have changed their views concerning conflict.
Conflict is now seen as having the potential for positive growth. Conflict is
good and necessary is suggested because conflict can stimulate innovative thinking
when properly managed. Conflicts allow an examination of necessity of these
thoughts and actions. However, conflict
in organizations is a daily occurrence because a consensus of opinion concerning
rules governing the organization seldom exists among staff and line employees. They
see one another as adversaries, and not as partners working towards a common
goal as the case should be in the organization. There are potentials for
conflict in practically every decision that the manger must make. Coping
efficiently and effectively with potential and bonafide conflicts is possibly
one of the most important aspects of the manager’s position.

 

2.    
Objective of the study

            The
purpose of this report is to discuss on the importance of outcome in conflict within
the organization which may lead to the positive and negative outcome of
conflict which may impact the whole organization. Next is to study the
different context or level of conflict which related to the positive and
negative outcome of conflict which may help the organization to gain better
understanding regarding conflict within the organization and which also can
contribute to the resolution or reduction of conflict within the organization.

 

3.    
Scope/methodology of study

 

Selection of the right research technique(s) is one of
the key factors in order to gain the right information. Each of the individual
techniques used to obtain data is linked to specific analysis and
interpretation processes. Not every technique can be used to transpose the
results obtained directly onto the pool of research subjects.

 

It is increasingly common for researchers and
academics to combine multiple techniques within a single research project
(Mixed-Mode Data Collection). This approach helps to reduce mistakes and
inconsistencies.

 

Each data collection technique has its strengths and
weaknesses. Devoting sufficient time to selecting the right techniques during
the research preparation phase will help eliminate mistakes during the analysis
stages.

 

 

The main methodology that we use to complete this
report include:

 

1) Brainstorming

Brainstorming
is a tool for creative problem solving, wherein a group of people come together
to contribute ideas spontaneously. We as a group use this method to break out
of stale, established patterns of thinking and to develop the new ways of looking
at things regarding our topic. As a results we come out with several ideas and
solution to our problems regarding the report.

 

2) Document or records/ readings from the internet

These
are maintained and written by actual participant or witness of an event or
situations. These sources are produced for the purpose of transmitting information
to be used in the future. Documents classified as primary sources which include
constitution, charters, laws, court decisions, contracts, wills, autobiographies,
letters, official minutes or records, permits, licenses, receipts,newspapers,magazines,maps,diagrams,books,pamphlets,pictures,
paintings, recordings, transcriptions and research reports.

We
use this method due to easy access and availability of the documents. We review
all the information on the internet regarding our topic which include the
online book, statistic of conflict in the workplace, any articles, newspapers,
chart and research report that are related to the outcome of conflict.

 

3) Interviews

Interviews
are a “guided conversation where one person seeks information from the
other.” There are various types of interview you can choose from based on
your project needs and constraints. Interviews may be conducted remotely (via
the phone), or face to face. A structured interview is one where the list of
questions is prepared in advance and the researcher tries to solicit answers
from all participants. A non-directed interview is one where the interviewer
primarily listens to the subject and provides minimal input or direction.

 

In
order to complete this report we interview our lecture Madam Amirah to gain
information that is related to our report this include on the format and how to
do the report properly.

 

4.    
Discussion

4.1. Outcome of
conflict

          “Conflict”
means
a
situation in which someone believe that his or her own needs have been denied.
In the workplace, it refers to the struggles that results from incompatible
needs, feeling, thought or demands within person or between two or more people.
Conflict happened when parties disagree over some issues or when emotional
create friction between them. It is importance
to know the outcome of conflict or in another words is the effect of conflict
within the organization so that we can find the resolution for the conflict that
happen within the organization.

 

One
of the most common outcomes of conflict is that it upsets parties in the short
run. However, conflict can have both positive and negative outcomes. On the
positive side, conflict can result in greater creativity or better decisions.
For example, as a result of a disagreement over a policy, a manager may learn
from an employee that newer technologies help solve problems in an
unanticipated new way which my lead to the maximum productivity and
efficiency.

Positive outcomes
include the following:

a)     
Consideration
of a broader range of ideas, resulting in a better, stronger idea.

            When conflict happen, people will start to think creatively
to solve the problems they will start to discuss and exchange ideas among
members which will lead to a unique and strong solution to the problems.

b)    
Increased
participation and creativity

            When conflict happen people tend to find the solution,
they take part actively to come out with the best solution in order to achieve
their esteem needs.

c)     
Develop
interpersonal skill

            Conflict promotes the development of interpersonal
skills, as individual strive to get on with each other in spite of their
differences.

d)     Conflict promote self-growth and self-development.

            Conflict promote growth through learning to overcome
challenges in unison with other people.  

Examples
of negative outcomes include
the following:

a)     
Increased
stress and anxiety among individuals, which decreases productivity and
satisfaction.

            Conflict can have both short term and long term effects
on the physical and psychological health of the individuals involved in or
affected by the conflict. In worst case scenarios the psychological
consequences can include deep trauma and diminished coping mechanisms.

b)    
Feelings
of being defeated and demeaned, which lowers individuals’ morale and may
increase turnover.

            Unhealthy competition, or situations in which employees
try to one-up each other at company expense, may occur as clashing employees
try to prove their own solution is the best way to proceed. Teamwork and team
spirit can suffer as employees refuse to help one another for fear of being
outdone and each works to bring the other down. Backstabbing, sabotage and open
hostility are common results. This will contribute to low morale or
demotivation among employees.

c)     
Decreased
Productivity

            Ongoing conflict can affect the company culture as it
creates an environment of hostility, suspicion and distrust. Job satisfaction,
productivity and employees commitment to the company can decrease as the
negative effect on the overall company culture increases.

d)    
Distract
from primary purposes

            Conflict can distract individuals and groups from their
primary purposes, leaving them with less time and resources for other activities.

 

Usually
conflict in an organization give negative impact to business but if we
understand the outcome of conflict we can turns the negative result into a
positive results which may lead to the effectiveness of productivity.

 

Take
the survey report of employers’ experiences of managing workplace conflict
published by the CIPD in 2011, for example. The survey shows that the annual
cost of conflict resolution to UK businesses amounted to around £33 billion.
57,737
cases of workplace conflict failed to be resolved internally or amicably and
were brought to the Employment Tribunal; an increase of more than 36 per cent over
the same period last year. These figures speak for themselves. It pays to
invest in the management and leadership skills of conflict management and
resolution. In addition, an average of 20% of leadership time and 370 million
working days are lost due to conflict resolution every year. These figures
persuasively underline that dealing with workplace conflict erodes the business
resources enormously. It’s rare for a conflict in the workplace
to escalate without early warning signs. Friction and tension between different
parties will usually have been building over time. Eventually they come to a
head when one or both parties ‘snap’. Knowing where the potential conflict
hotspots and their causes lie within the team or indeed the organisation as a
whole is paramount. (Do You Recognise the
Early Warning Signs of Workplace Conflict? by predictive advantage retrieved from https://www.predictive-advantage.com)

 

Workplace
conflict comes in many shapes and sizes and finds its cause predominantly in
personalities interacting and engaging with each other. The
common thread is human behaviour and personalities. Certain personalities will
naturally engage well with some but not others. It stands to reason that a team
made up of people with compatible, but by no means identical, temperaments and
therefore working styles or indeed diverse but well managed personalities can
help to create a more harmonious workplace. Consequently, knowing our staff and
their natural personality styles must be at the centre of any strategy for
conflict prevention. This is where being able to create a personality record of
employees and job candidates with the help of behavioural assessments can
enable managers to create and manage a cooperative team. At the same time, this
knowledge will sharpen awareness for any potential flashpoints between
employees. This type of analysis has to go hand in hand with open but sensitive
employee feedback and dialogue to enable managers to remain perceptive of any
potential problem areas in the workplace. A company which utilises a database
of employee reviews and behavioural assessments creates a solid platform for
reviewing and analysing a conflict situation, if it does occur.

 

Not
all forms of conflict are obvious. The better we know about our team, the
easier it will be to identify early warning signs of conflict and their
effects. Some individuals might hide their feelings as a way of coping with a
problem in the workplace. A careful analysis of the responses to employee
surveys or questionnaires, which are collected throughout the year, can provide
initial indicators to any underlying dissatisfaction amongst employees. If
morale is low, fewer people may volunteer to take on new tasks and routine jobs
may simply be left undone. This has a direct effect on productivity. If
employees are not fully cooperating with each other, the number of queries and
complaints from clients and customers are likely to increase. Projects may be
endangered, creativity stifled and time wasted. Unhappiness may lead to
depression or stress or employees simply wishing to avoid being at work. The
level of staff turnover may increase. Whilst conflict can occur in any social
and organisation setting, the challenge lies in how we choose to deal with it.