Abstract emerge however, in recently developed materials that are

Abstract

Building and
construction is the fastest growing market sector has a major impact in
increasing the environment pollution. Therefore, it has become essential to
review in-depth the technology of materials science to reduce their negative
impact on the environment and their application on innovative architecture.
Recently, great attention has been given to the application of Nanomaterials
that play a crucial role in sustainable and ecological lifestyle. Furthermost,
the potential to enhance more eco-friendly and sustainable possibility without
compromising the efficiency, structure, durability, cost-effectiveness, and
productivity is of key importance. However, understanding the use of this new technology
is essential to convey the advantages of such technology to achieve the
sustainable design in order to attract the willingness and openness of both
engineers and the owners.  The aim of
this research is therefore to provide a new insight of nanomaterial and their
use to comprehend the necessity of the designer/architect to be intellectually
aware of the fresh innovations and trends to keep up with modern technique and
practical understanding of ”smart” materials and to provide a dramatic advancement
and improvement in the construction industry. The authors demonstrate different
case studies about Nanomaterials and their use in buildings to answer the
question about the role of Nanomaterials in the development of an innovative
design for transportable environments.

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Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nano materials, Architecture, Sustainability, Sustainable
Design, Construction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.0  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

 

‘We have only
begun to speculate upon the uses of these new materials in architecture. Characteristic
properties have begun to emerge however, in recently developed materials that
are the opposite of many conventional materials now in widespread use. … Dramatic
changes in the properties of recently developed materials will ultimately transform
architecture…1:pp.1.

 

1.1
Introduction

 

As a result of
technological development in architecture and building industry, and as
buildings are significant users of materials. New materials are being
discovered and developed daily cause a larger part of pollutions on both the
interior and exterior environment ranging from consuming natural resources,
increasing energy consumption during their production, and releasing toxic
substances 2, 3. Accordingly, selecting the proper material is the key role
in achieving sustainability. Research in nanotechnology has a promising future
mainly in the implementation of Nano-technological products at low costs and in
an environmentally friendly way in construction industry 4. It has been
observed that Nano-smart building materials have distinctive characteristics
that can notably secure current environment related construction issues
represents an example of how creative inventions combined with eco-efficiency
and a knowledge-based road to evolve old based products into new and enhanced
building materials 5. Therefore, sustaining our built environment needs the
efforts of designers, engineers, contractors and scientists alike to seek a
higher performance of new materials to enhance more eco-friendly and
sustainable possibility without compromising the efficiency, structure,
durability, cost-effectiveness, and productivity is of key importance for new
responsive materials 6.

 

1.2 Background

 

Since the
beginning of the twenty-first century, Richard Feynman the Nobel Prize
physicist has opened the way for innovations related to nanotechnology. Nanotechnology
as a discipline covers many application areas (materials science, engineering,
chemistry, physics, and biology). This new emerging nanotechnology “nanotech”
has the ability of producing Nanomaterials, Nano derived
from Greek word Nano (in Latin nanus), is
a prefix that means one billionth “One billionth” (10 -9) is
typically measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter, involves
developing materials which are lighter, stronger, and requires less energy to
produce, or improving the properties of conventional construction material 7.
Moreover, awareness has been given to Nanomaterials to achieve innovative
sustainable construction in addition to their role in architectural design
thinking in producing innovative solutions for the negative impact on the
environment 8-9.

 

1.3 Research Problem

 

Nanotechnology
presents a lot of materials and applications in the field of architecture and
construction. The reason this
technology is not being utilized in the construction industry is due to lack of
experience in the application of nanotechnology in building industry in architects, engineers, and contractors in most of the developing
countries.

 

 

1.4 Research Hypothesis

 

To affirm the
research goal, this research has the following hypothesis:

–      
Application of Nano
materials in architecture and construction industry sustaining our environment.

–      
Nanomaterials lead to
new modernization and advancement in future architecture.

 

1.5 Research Objectives

 

This research is
seeking to investigate what Nanomaterials are and how they might be applied in
architecture and building industry for many problems in the 21st century. That
aim was attained through the following objectives:

•    To review how nanotechnology and its
innovative building material benefit the sustainability of the environment.

•    To establish a basic knowledge about
Nano-smart building materials and its merits in construction building
technologies, architectural design business, and environmental remediation.

•    To showcase the importance and great
potentiality of nanotechnology and it’s smart building materials that are
applied in construction building technologies, architecture and interior
designing.

•    Encourage engineers, architects, and
interior designers to construct and design a building with parallel to enhance
the environmental sustainability.

•    To provide improvement and utilization of
new and innovative resources to make the environment a better place to live.

 

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW

 

The use of
nanotechnology influence the built environment at all scales architecture,
interior design, and city design that replace conventional technologies that do
not cause significant changes in the design and the built environment in
producing materials with unique properties capable of expressing both high and
customizable performance, durability, reduce production cost, minimal
environmental impacts together with aesthetic aspects of architecture 7, 9.
For example, nanotechnology allows concrete to achieve properties similar to
steel in low weight, carrying capacity, energy resources savings, and lowering
pollution related to the cement industry; metals with greater hardness;
producing transparent ceramics; and polymers with improved resistance to heat
and resistance to weathering 9. In addition, nanotechnology has the potential
to transform the built environment from building enclosure materials (coatings,
panels, and insulation) to energy, lighting, and security, which dramatically
alter the nature of building an enclosure that produces new functions and new
relationship between people, building and environment 8. Although
Nanomaterials are effective to environmental, their usage is not wide-spread in
building industry as a result of limited knowledge, limited raw material, fear
of risk, and high cost. Therefore, to overcome these obstacles, Nanomaterials
should be introduced to people through architects and engineers, advertisements
and through a big building project to make people more aware and familiar with
them. On the other hand, the application of Nanomaterials they can have adverse
reactions to the environment and can cause several diseases as their
biodegradation has not been thoroughly studied 4.

According to
Mahdavinejad et. al. 10, Nano materials are classified according to their use
in buildings to three types: Façade, lighting, energy and structural system.
Most appreciated developments of nanotechnology are fullerene (a new form of
carbon, C60) and carbon nanotubes that includes materials or devices structured
on the nanometer scale to gain unique properties, as Nanoscale materials
demonstrate physical, chemical and biological properties that are very
different from those of their normal-sized counterparts figure 1 5. According
to Hernandez-Moreno & Torre X, Nano materials are classified according to
3 dimensions:

a) One-dimension Nanomaterials (1D) <100nm are those materials commonly used as surfaces like thin films to produce intelligent glass to regulate light and heat. b) Two-dimension Nanomaterials (2D) <100nm for example tubes. Those materials used for their excellent mechanical and electrical properties, for example producing Portland-cement-based concrete, increasing its mechanical strengths and nanowires are used in electronic devices such as sensors and conductors in the automation of intelligent buildings. c) Three-dimension Nanomaterials (3D) <100nm for example, particles, quantum dots, buck balls, etc. The most representative example is the Fullerene (figure 2) C60, takes the name of architect Richard B. Fuller, who was building geodesic buildings based on hexagons and pentagons and it has different applications in construction: highly efficient lubricants; superconductors; photovoltaic cells in combination with polymers.                                                                                                                    Fig.1. Nanotubes and Graphite sheet of nanotubes 5.        Fig.2. Fullerene C60, which is constituted of a third                                                                                                  allotropic form of Carbon 4.           2.1 Nano smart materials   Nanomaterials are often defined as an object that has a minimum of one dimension in Nanometer scale 5. Nanotechnology is the modeling of Nano smart materials by controlling the matter at different levels of atoms, molecules, and supermolecular structures often measured in Nanoscale. In simpler words, Nanomaterials comply with smaller atoms to form new large-scale materials 12. It is grouped with means to their dimensions. Nanomaterials in construction can be shown as economic due to their ten times lighter and hundred times stronger than any regular material 5. Nano smart building materials are the enhanced technology for materials and productions that possess the capability of recognizing and understanding the environmental events. These materials can accomplish sensing and activate functions that are skilled to the changes in the environment 13.   In other words, these Nanomaterials own the competence to change and reverse change their formation in answer to their physical and chemical effects 11.   2.1.1 NANO SMART MATERIALS IN DESIGNING SECTORS Over time, the designing industry has evolved and have reached great heights. Building materials are one of the major element in construction, architecture and interior design and its related disciplines, hence, it is expected that Nanotechnology and its Nanomaterials will provide a prospect in refining the nature of building structure and resolve important issues related to the environment. Several building materials that integrate Nanotechnology provide functional properties such as self-cleaning windows to light-emitting walls and ceilings, fire resistance, unique sensing properties to monitor temperature, humidity, and airborne toxins. One of the most challenging issues was that of energy efficiency which deals with climate change and helps reduce the greenhouse gas emission which in turn assist in achieving a more sustainable environment 10. Utilization of these materials in the designing industry will not only increase the life expectancy of the buildings but will also help in enhancing the environmental surroundings, modernization of the structure, decrease energy consumption and improve methods 15.Nanomaterials have the ability to change their form, color, and internal energy, in addition, they present an opportunity in improving the nature of building structure, solve problems relate to the environment, and unveil more solutions to meet some of the biggest challenges of our time 11.     2.1.2 Nano Materials – Merits in Construction   Due to their unique and flexible characteristics, Nanomaterials can be used in the construction industry in many areas.  Nanomaterials have the capability to secure the ongoing building problems and transform the organization of construction methods 12. Traditional materials such as steel, cement, glass or polymers when assorted in mass with Nanomaterials or altered in its physical and chemical assembly through classification of the materials is known as a Nanostructured material. The attributes of Nanostructured construction materials and its elements are accordingly changed due to their usage, force, and resistance in related field construction management. The usage of advanced nanotechnology based on its Nanomaterials in construction has the ability to expressively improve the sustainability of building materials, by concentrating on spectacles and not on the material object 13. The aim of nanotechnology is to accomplish various goals, mainly focusing on eco-friendly, green surrounding and low cost with high performance 5. Nanomaterials offer more efficiency meaning cumulative strength, ductility, durability, and ability than traditional materials. Utilization of these materials in the construction industry will not only increase the life expectancy of the buildings but will help in enhancing the environmental surroundings, decrease building cost and improve building and construction methods 11. Providing greater attention to innovations in Nanomaterials and systems accessible is crucial in the construction industry and to maximize its reciprocal relationship in the near future 6. 2.1.3 Nano Materials – Merits in Architecture   Nanomaterials in architecture denote in providing resolutions that can avoid drawbacks such as obstruction of natural resources, the downfall of bionetworks and ecological pollution. Sustainable architecture is accountable for structures that can be tolerable and healthy long-lasting 11. The aim for an architect is nanotech materials and its virtues that will assist the near future needs towards a sustainable and renewable approach 14. To achieve a sustainable environment, crucial methods should be undertaken, both functional and visual aspects of construction involving broader matters such as eco-efficiency and growth of green surrounding 11, 7. Different practices that can be undertaken: ·       Usage of fabric incorporated with self-cleaning properties in order to minimize the cleaning work load and water usage. ·       Nano coatings used on structural surfaces to protect from rain, dirt run off and heat. ·       Application of heat absorbing glass, whose interlayer provide cost effective possibilities to minimize heat and energy loads. ·       Anti-fogging glass can be used for clarity for steamed up surfaces, contains high surface energy and therefore high moisture absorption.    3.0  RESEARCH METHODS   Based on the research objective stated previously, the intention of this study is to determine excessive potential of Nanotechnology and it's smart building materials for a sustainable environment. Which was done by reviewing and interpreting the philosophy of Nanotechnology in different fields by relevant journals and literature analysis. The methodology of this research adapted the following procedure: ·       To explain Nanotechnology and its different attributes in Nanomaterials throughout the study. ·       To showcase Nanomaterials and its uses in diverse sectors of designing such as construction and architecture. ·       To assess the Nanotech-materials and its strength in making the environment sustainable.   3.1  Nanomaterials and its merits in different sectors of construction and designing region   Some products of nanotechnology are practiced and has been adapted for a while now. The table 1.0 below shows some central materials that has been in use and has been rapidly recognized in its subjective businesses. Table 1.0: Application and advantages of Nanomaterial in various building sectors   Serial No. Distinguished Nanomaterials Division/Sectors Uses Advantages 1. Aerogel insulation Construction Window insulator To avoid heat access 2. Self-cleaning glass Interior Design Hydrophobic structures Glass stays cleaner for long. Reduces the dirt & grime adheres 3. Nano sensors Construction Monitor & control the performance Structure health/ environmental performance 4. Carbon nanotubes Architecture Mainly in polymers & antistatic packaging industry Way stronger than steel but their weight to be one-sixth of a nanotube fibre 5. Rapid hardening concrete Construction Constructing roads & buildings Reduces shrinkage & superior resistance 6. Nano Paints Interior Design In Hospitals/residential buildings/industrial locations Water-proofing, corrosion protection & flame resistance 7. Air purifier Architecture In textile/paints Improves quality of air. Eradicates dirt & pollutants.     4.0 RECOMMENDATION The time ahead of manufacturing and designing inventions is looking up to great innovations and ideas for the structural business and high-quality performances. Nanotechnology is one such innovation that is yet to be established to its full caliber in the business world. In order to do so, insight in nanotechnology and its merits must be brought upon in various coursework of engineering, interior designing, and architectural degrees. To showcase its several benefits of nanotechnology and its smart nanomaterials in economic and environmental growth. Marketing of nanotechnology by designers to consumers by being the bridge of knowledge for the advancement of the environment and modernization of building structures with cost-effective options. A collective effort among governmental associations to promote and assure healthy and eco-friendly regions, by setting ground rules for constructing and designing.  Evaluations should be undertaken for any technologies tested and tried in order to comprehend the effects between different smart materials and its chemical and physical properties on the environment and sustainability.      5.0 CONCLUSION   This result of this research shows that Nanomaterials in building industries in Bahrain are not familiar with the lack of awareness and appropriate cognition of new products. Therefore, and to comply with this necessity it is required from the involved groups such as academic staffs, designers, construction companies and people to be aware of the functions and applications of new products in using them in their projects. In addition, holding conferences, specialized workshops, and seminars, and participating in international conferences and exhibitions can play an important role in encouraging implementation of Nanomaterials. If done so, nanotechnology will be proved to be a unique and cost-effective bargain for the construction and designing world in the long run. Slowly but surely, Nano products such as glazing, coatings, paints etc., are emerging in the public eye but are yet to be fully reputed as a whole of nanotechnology. More exploration and enactment are required for the regulation of a sustainable environment by studying and adapting nanotechnology.