Abstract emerge however, in recently developed materials that are

Abstract

Building and
construction is the fastest growing market sector has a major impact in
increasing the environment pollution. Therefore, it has become essential to
review in-depth the technology of materials science to reduce their negative
impact on the environment and their application on innovative architecture.
Recently, great attention has been given to the application of Nanomaterials
that play a crucial role in sustainable and ecological lifestyle. Furthermost,
the potential to enhance more eco-friendly and sustainable possibility without
compromising the efficiency, structure, durability, cost-effectiveness, and
productivity is of key importance. However, understanding the use of this new technology
is essential to convey the advantages of such technology to achieve the
sustainable design in order to attract the willingness and openness of both
engineers and the owners.  The aim of
this research is therefore to provide a new insight of nanomaterial and their
use to comprehend the necessity of the designer/architect to be intellectually
aware of the fresh innovations and trends to keep up with modern technique and
practical understanding of ”smart” materials and to provide a dramatic advancement
and improvement in the construction industry. The authors demonstrate different
case studies about Nanomaterials and their use in buildings to answer the
question about the role of Nanomaterials in the development of an innovative
design for transportable environments.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nano materials, Architecture, Sustainability, Sustainable
Design, Construction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.0  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

 

‘We have only
begun to speculate upon the uses of these new materials in architecture. Characteristic
properties have begun to emerge however, in recently developed materials that
are the opposite of many conventional materials now in widespread use. … Dramatic
changes in the properties of recently developed materials will ultimately transform
architecture…1:pp.1.

 

1.1
Introduction

 

As a result of
technological development in architecture and building industry, and as
buildings are significant users of materials. New materials are being
discovered and developed daily cause a larger part of pollutions on both the
interior and exterior environment ranging from consuming natural resources,
increasing energy consumption during their production, and releasing toxic
substances 2, 3. Accordingly, selecting the proper material is the key role
in achieving sustainability. Research in nanotechnology has a promising future
mainly in the implementation of Nano-technological products at low costs and in
an environmentally friendly way in construction industry 4. It has been
observed that Nano-smart building materials have distinctive characteristics
that can notably secure current environment related construction issues
represents an example of how creative inventions combined with eco-efficiency
and a knowledge-based road to evolve old based products into new and enhanced
building materials 5. Therefore, sustaining our built environment needs the
efforts of designers, engineers, contractors and scientists alike to seek a
higher performance of new materials to enhance more eco-friendly and
sustainable possibility without compromising the efficiency, structure,
durability, cost-effectiveness, and productivity is of key importance for new
responsive materials 6.

 

1.2 Background

 

Since the
beginning of the twenty-first century, Richard Feynman the Nobel Prize
physicist has opened the way for innovations related to nanotechnology. Nanotechnology
as a discipline covers many application areas (materials science, engineering,
chemistry, physics, and biology). This new emerging nanotechnology “nanotech”
has the ability of producing Nanomaterials, Nano derived
from Greek word Nano (in Latin nanus), is
a prefix that means one billionth “One billionth” (10 -9) is
typically measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter, involves
developing materials which are lighter, stronger, and requires less energy to
produce, or improving the properties of conventional construction material 7.
Moreover, awareness has been given to Nanomaterials to achieve innovative
sustainable construction in addition to their role in architectural design
thinking in producing innovative solutions for the negative impact on the
environment 8-9.

 

1.3 Research Problem

 

Nanotechnology
presents a lot of materials and applications in the field of architecture and
construction. The reason this
technology is not being utilized in the construction industry is due to lack of
experience in the application of nanotechnology in building industry in architects, engineers, and contractors in most of the developing
countries.

 

 

1.4 Research Hypothesis

 

To affirm the
research goal, this research has the following hypothesis:

–      
Application of Nano
materials in architecture and construction industry sustaining our environment.

–      
Nanomaterials lead to
new modernization and advancement in future architecture.

 

1.5 Research Objectives

 

This research is
seeking to investigate what Nanomaterials are and how they might be applied in
architecture and building industry for many problems in the 21st century. That
aim was attained through the following objectives:

•    To review how nanotechnology and its
innovative building material benefit the sustainability of the environment.

•    To establish a basic knowledge about
Nano-smart building materials and its merits in construction building
technologies, architectural design business, and environmental remediation.

•    To showcase the importance and great
potentiality of nanotechnology and it’s smart building materials that are
applied in construction building technologies, architecture and interior
designing.

•    Encourage engineers, architects, and
interior designers to construct and design a building with parallel to enhance
the environmental sustainability.

•    To provide improvement and utilization of
new and innovative resources to make the environment a better place to live.

 

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW

 

The use of
nanotechnology influence the built environment at all scales architecture,
interior design, and city design that replace conventional technologies that do
not cause significant changes in the design and the built environment in
producing materials with unique properties capable of expressing both high and
customizable performance, durability, reduce production cost, minimal
environmental impacts together with aesthetic aspects of architecture 7, 9.
For example, nanotechnology allows concrete to achieve properties similar to
steel in low weight, carrying capacity, energy resources savings, and lowering
pollution related to the cement industry; metals with greater hardness;
producing transparent ceramics; and polymers with improved resistance to heat
and resistance to weathering 9. In addition, nanotechnology has the potential
to transform the built environment from building enclosure materials (coatings,
panels, and insulation) to energy, lighting, and security, which dramatically
alter the nature of building an enclosure that produces new functions and new
relationship between people, building and environment 8. Although
Nanomaterials are effective to environmental, their usage is not wide-spread in
building industry as a result of limited knowledge, limited raw material, fear
of risk, and high cost. Therefore, to overcome these obstacles, Nanomaterials
should be introduced to people through architects and engineers, advertisements
and through a big building project to make people more aware and familiar with
them. On the other hand, the application of Nanomaterials they can have adverse
reactions to the environment and can cause several diseases as their
biodegradation has not been thoroughly studied 4.

According to
Mahdavinejad et. al. 10, Nano materials are classified according to their use
in buildings to three types: Façade, lighting, energy and structural system.
Most appreciated developments of nanotechnology are fullerene (a new form of
carbon, C60) and carbon nanotubes that includes materials or devices structured
on the nanometer scale to gain unique properties, as Nanoscale materials
demonstrate physical, chemical and biological properties that are very
different from those of their normal-sized counterparts figure 1 5. According
to Hernandez-Moreno & Torre X, Nano materials are classified according to
3 dimensions:

a) One-dimension Nanomaterials (1D)