Analysis of all the economic sectors, Energy sector alone

Analysis of INDC:At 21st conference of the parties to the UNFCCC in December, 2015 totally 190 countries adopted Paris Agreement which introduced the very first universal legally binding climate treaty. It has moved away from clear differentiation between developed and developing countries towards a common framework for all the countries to put forward their best efforts. While as of now only 162 countries have submitted their INDCs to UNFCCC. The three key objectives of Paris Agreement as given in the article 2 were like:Hold increasing Global average temperature too well below 2? industrial labels and pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5?.Adaptation towards the adverse impacts of climate change and climate resilience and lower GHG emissions development.Make financial flows consistent with the pathway towards  low GHG and climate resilient development.Agreement made the parties to commit to pursue domestic measures with the aim of achieving the objectives of the indices but they are not legally bound to the implementation or achievement of their goals. Background:Upto late 18th century the US was mainly dependent upon firewood as main source of energy. Eventually, coal, natural gas and petroleum became the sources of larger consumption of the country. According to Bill Gates, who is also member of American Energy Innovation Council the country should raise its contribution in energy research and development as the US needs to reduce its GHG emissions by 80% by 2050 and its possible only with better technologies for the country. It has seen through studies that use of primary energy has decreased by 4.7% from 2004 to 2013. Annual CO2 emissions through energy sector have decreased by 7.4% i.e., from 5000 Mt to 5120 Mt for the same respective years. President Trump declared US has left out of Paris Agreement. But cities, states, organizations decided to follow the the climate commitments to fill the gap. It was seen through studies that the US can already meet at least half of its climate commitments given under the Paris Agreement by 2025 only if the 342 commitments included in the analysis are implemented.  Figure 2: Climate Action Track of US over the years 1990 to 2050(Image Source: USA Climate Action Tracker)Out of all the economic sectors, Energy sector alone contributes of around 31% GHG emissions since 1990. Emission sink is the reverse of emissions i.e., absorption of atmospheric Carbon Dioxide which involves various activities like growth of forests, land-use change and land use. Analysis has shown that because of the larger area and their political leaderships states like New York California and Colorado in USA are making major contributions towards projected Greenhouse gas reductions. Businesses have extreme targets of reductions of 25% in the next ten years.Figure shows the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in various economic sector in the country for the years 1990-2014. Electricity generation includes GHG emissions by energy power sectors. And Agriculture, Commercial and Residential involves burning of oil or gas for heating purpose.   Figure 3: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks By Economic Sector, 1990–2014(Image Source: Climate Change Indicators: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions)In-depth review by UNFCCC has shown that programs by CCAP are at an early stage of development. While voluntary actions taken by cities, states and organizations have proved to achieve or cross their set short term goals. Unless they get proper fundings by energy or environmental agencies it is difficult for them to continue with the same pace. Formal education in school or colleges can play key role in public education part but US legislation does not allow Federal government to take part in public education on Climate Change issues.     ReferencesBRICS. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from https://wiki2.org/en/BRICSBora, C. (2013, October 14). Top 10 Oil Producing Countries in the World. Retrieved January 15, 2018, from https://www.buzzle.com/articles/top10-oil-producing-countries-in-the-world.htmlSchievelbein, V., & Lee, A. (1999). Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Methodology. SPE/EPA Exploration and Production Environmental Conference. doi:10.2118/52672-msTennis, A. (n.d.). States leading the way on climate change action: The view from the Northeast. Creating a Climate for Change, 416-430. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511535871.029Http://ljournal.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/a-2017-023.pdf. (2017). doi:10.18411/a-2017-023Http://ljournal.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/a-2017-023.pdf. 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