Bailey during World War II, Japan was willing to

Bailey
WilsonDr.
SatoHIST
4335December
8, 2017 Nuclear Anxiety”Nuclear War is such an emotional subject
that many people see the weapons themselves as the common enemy of humanity”-
Herman Kahn. Nuclear Warfare was
discovered in the 1940s by physicists that were studying the atom. When it was
discovered no one knew the effects that it would have on the world for years to
come. One of the most devastating effects from the atomic bomb occurred when
the United States dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and claimed
thousands of lives. If Japan and the United states knew how to communicate and
use the method of peace to solve problems, instead of trying to get even, then
the thousands of lives that were taken could have been saved. Nuclear weapons
should have never been used against Japan during World War II, Japan was
willing to surrender, and if they would have been able to effectively
communicate this to the Americans then lives could have been saved and fear and
anxiety could have been prevented. Ironically, even the various scientists that
worked on the project that created the bomb agreed that Hiroshima and Nagasaki
should have never been bombed. Since the beginning of scientists attempts at
studying nuclear war options people around the world have been scared of what
will be due to the fact that it is the fear of the unknown. 

            Albert
Einstein was a German Physicist that was born and lived in Germany during the
time that Hitler came to power. Albert Einstein and his team members wrote a
letter in the summer of 1939 to the United States that warned them that Hitler
had physicists in Germany researching and attempting to develop nuclear
weapons.. Einstein and his team wrote the letters because they were fearful
that once Germany was finished with their research and developed their bombs
that they would use them on the United States. After receiving the letter from
the scientists the United States only interest was to create a weapon so
powerful that it could wipe off part of the world. This interest led the United
States to develop a top secret plan that would essentially develop the atomic
bomb, this plan was the Manhattan Project. This project was the United States
first search for atomic weapons. It took place during the late 1930s and early
1940s and the purpose of the project was to create a bomb through the division
of atoms. The Manhattan Project ended up being a success that in the end
created one of the most powerful and destructive bombs ever made which is the
atomic bomb. With the creation of this and destructive bomb the President Harry
Truman was faced with weighing all the factors that were involved in deciding
to drop the bomb or not. The first atomic bomb was tested in New Mexico in July
of 1945. Since the United States wanted to put an end to the war with Japan and
with creation of this new deadly bomb, the United States decided bomb Japan
making it one of the most deadly bombings in US history. After the decision was
made to bomb Japan with President Truman’s approval in August of 1945 the first
atomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima. This bomb killed thousands in Hiroshima
and the surrounding areas as well as caused mass destruction to the land. The
blast killed and injured thousands of civilians as well as blasted four square
miles alone of land. It is said that the President’s rationale for dropping the
bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was thought it would save thousands of Americans
lives, however after the bomb was dropped the Japanese called for a truce and
surrender as well as withdrew from the war. Although mass disaster came from
the dropping of the bomb some good came from it. The good that came from it was
that it served as a reminder to people around the world that the atom bomb is a
weapon capable of mass destruction. The atomic bomb affected every one simply
because of the power it possessed. Everyone around the world was affected
emotionally as well as physically by the atomic bomb. Due to the after effects
that come from the bomb a lot of people have or have even been injured, which
is why the atom bomb brings so much fear into peoples lives because they
constantly worry and wonder what would happen to their city if an atomic bomb
were dropped on them. With the attempt at advancement with the nuclear bomb
this lead the US into the cold war. All throughout the Cold War the United
States and Russia were continuously thinking of bombing each other the only
thing that stopped was the reminder of Hiroshima and Nagasaki showing how
powerful the bomb was.
            The
Cold War was a tense and stressful time for many Americans, one of the reasons
for this was because millions of lives could have been lost had the cold war occurred.
The Cold War began at the end of World War II even though the United States and
Russia were allies against Germany. Since the common enemy had been defeated in
World War two, this gave the two power houses the opportunity to focus on each
other. The reason that there was tension between the two countries was because
America is a democracy and the Soviet Union is a communist nation which means
the two countries have opposing views. Their opposing views caused so much
tension between the two countries that they could not handle the thought of
peacefully existing. Due to mounting tension Russia decided to align itself
with Cuba and devise a plan to get rid of the Americans. America and Cuba have
always had a bad relationship due to opposing views due to the opposing views
Castro made the decision to align himself with Russia. After aligning with
Russia Cuba then made the decision to use their location against America.
            In
1962 when John F. Kennedy was the President of the United States he decoded a
message that the Soviet Union was working on building secret missile bases off
the coast of Florida in Cuba. Kennedy contemplated long and hard whether a plan
of attack should be devised or not, but ultimately decided on attempting to
settle the issue peacefully. Kennedy came to the decision that he would force
the Russian Premier Khrushchev to remove all the missile bases that they built
in Cuba. In order to execute his plan a naval blockade of Cuba was ordered so
that Russian ships could no longer bring missiles and materials into the
island. Due to the naval blockade that was ordered Premier Khrushchev ordered
that if Cuba was invaded by US forces then in response the Soviet field
commanders should launch their nuclear weapons. In the end, the situation worked
out peacefully the way the President Kennedy wanted. The two sides agreed on a
treaty that stated the US would remove any missiles that they had and Turkey
and they had to promise that they would not invade Cuba, and the Soviet Union
had to remove all nuclear contents from Cuba. It has been widely said that the
Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest that the world came to nuclear war. The
crisis lasted between the two countries in October for thirteen days. Those
thirteen days were some of the most fearful days that Americans ever
experienced. The Crisis occurred because the Soviets had a fear of losing the
nuclear arms race to the Americans, and the Cubans had a fear of the United
States invading them.
            It
is said that the Cold War would have never occurred if the two countries would
not have searched further into nuclear exploration, in the hopes of becoming
the first country with nuclear weapons. One other way the two wars are similar is
that the two countries that searched for the weapons of mass destruction were
extremists countries who hated that the US could invade whenever they wanted
to. September 11 was the beginning of the Iraq war. On this date the World
Trade Centers were attacked by terrorists. Finally three years after the attack
on the World Trade Centers the US declared war on Iraq. Fear struck out over
many Americans after the war on Iraq was declared. The reason for this fear was
because people felt that a nuclear attack could happen as a result of the war. The
way many people handled their was by spending most of their time at home with
their loved ones in order to be prepared in the event of an attack. This fear
had not only an effect on emotions but flights as well. Most Americans at this
time did not want to fly because they were afraid that the plane could be
crashed and hijacked or not. There was only one upside to the fear that was
brought on by this attack was, that it brought Americans closer together, and
made more people want to attend church.
            Now
that we have discussed nuclear events that have occurred in history, lets
discuss what type emotions or behaviors resulted from these weapons of mass
destruction. A few different types of nuclear fear as well as a few events that
display nuclear fear will be discussed throughout that rest of the paper.
Japanese nuclear accounts as well as Japanese culture will be discussed mainly
in terms of fear, but some American accounts and culture will be included as
well.                       To start let’s begin by discussing what
nuclear fear is and how it came about. Nuclear fear is also known as
Nucleomituphobia and it all started during the Cold War because Americans were
so scared of these weapons of mass destruction that they would not even leave
their house, because they were afraid that a nuclear attack could occur at any
time. Not everyone was affected by Nucleomituphobia, but those who were
affected by it stood out in a crowd. Those who possed the fear usually tried to
stay away from heavily populated areas because they wanted to make sure to not
draw attention to themselves if they are in public areas. This fear is
considered a disease that one can only get from the research of nuclear
development. If there was no research of nuclear warfare then Nucleomituphobia
would go away because people would not have to worry if they were going to die
today or not because potentially a terrorist could attack their city.             Another
event that occurred in response to the creation of nuclear warfare was the
creation of Gojira. This was a character in a movie that was created with
hidden propaganda in it warning citizens about nuclear testing as well as
nuclear weapons. The movie was created in 1954 and it was about “a giant lizard
with festering skin, incandescent laser powers, and radioactive breath attacks
on Japanese citizens” (Sayaka 1). Gojira resulted from nuclear testing gone
wrong. Throughout the movie a character known as Dr. Yamane dropped many hints
trying to influence that yes the oxygen bomb did in fact kill the only Gojira,
however if we continue nuclear testing another Gojira could come about.
            It
has been found that nuclear weapons are the only weapons that have the largest causality
producing rate and are the most dangerous to the environment. In today’s world
there are various scientists, and engineers have access to information, the
ability to get physical materials they need, a lot better understanding of
scientific information, and organizations that are devoted to building weapons
systems, however nuclear weapons are still the most powerful. The bombs are so
powerful that half-life of one of the products given off by the bomb is
plutonium 239 which lasts over 20,000 years. Due to the length of life that
plutonium has many people who have been exposed to it usually have seriously
health problems that could be anywhere from different types of cancer to
serious birth defects. The lasting effects that result from a nuclear bomb last
for years to come making it an extremely difficult event to recover from.
            At
this point in time there is no solution to handle the aftermath that occurs
from a nucear bomb that causes humans lives to be affected medically as well as
economically. Ever case that has involved some type of nuclear explosion shows
that the people who respond to and cleanup the explosion get affected by the
radiation and usually die. Another fear that results during nuclear war is the
catastrophic costs that result in response to the weapons. Every attempt to
clean up after each incident costs the government billions every year and even
still most of the areas that were affected were still contaminated after the
clean up. It costs the state of Washington alone over 2 billion dollars a year
to clean up after controlled explosions at the Hanford Nuclear Power Plant. Its
already cost them over 2 billion a year and they have only half way completed
the clean up. This is an example of a controlled explosion and it cost that
much to clean it can you imagine the costs to clean an area that was just blown
up by a bomb. The surroumounting costs to clean explosions as well as the
deaths and defects that result from the by products have been clearly
understood by the public and now frequently stir up political disputes.

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            Since nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction the
main priority of the United States is to keep these weapons from falling into
to the hands of unstable, radical countries that will attack the United States
because the weapons are so dangerous that they pose a great risk to the country.
Only 9 countries are known to have nuclear weapons. These countries are for the
most part in the middle east as well as Iran has the possibility of becoming
the 10th country with nuclear weapons. The US has a large amount of
fear with the Middle Eastern countries having these weapons because they are
the most unstable countries. The reason they are unstable is because some of
the countries that possess these weapons are weak and way too secure to sustain
their weapons, which puts the world at risk for the weapons falling into the
wrong hands. Various organizations and leaders from around the world are bound
to prevent a dangerous situation like the weapons falling into the wrong hands
from happening.
            the
drive and want for some governments to attempt to explore for nuclear power has
been economically draining on the countries and placed many of some countries
people into poverty. In order to explore the weapons you have to do research,
you have to develop the bombs, you have to sustain the bombs, and you have to
have security on the bombs so they do not fall into the wrong hands. In order
to do all those things you have to have a lot of money because nuclear weapons
are expensive and the only way for the government to pay for them is by taxing
their citizens. The Soviet Union collapsed due to two things, the first was Chernobyl,
and the second was the arms race with the US. Chernobyl economically impacted
the Soviets negatively, it costs the Soviets 22% of their yearly budget. Both the
events that caused the Soviet Union to collapse were brought upon by the Cold
War. Had the Cold War not occurred then neither would any of the events that
happened. The collapse of the Soviet Union was due to a combination of two
things: the Chernobyl nuclear meltdown and the arms race with America. The
economic impacts of Chernobyl alone was costing the Soviet Union almost 22% of
their annual federal budget. These events all stemmed from the Cold War, and if
it had not been for that, there could have been a possibility that none of this
would have ever happened.