Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge for humans are very

Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge for humans are very important for achieving a healthy lifestyle. First of all, this study can help those athletes especially understand about dietary habits among students who can apply them in daily life. Dietary habits are the consumption of remaining food in daily food, which avoids taking fast food and junk food. It is important to improve nutritional knowledge, such as food, such as meal intake, which is important for many aspects (Nor Hasnida Binti Abdul Halim & Mubarrak Yusof, 2014) Knowledge of nutrition can be obtained from many sources such as magazines, internet, high friends / family, coach, doctor, newspaper. We provide the basis of knowledge to self athlete (Abood, Black & Coster 2008), Nutrition knowledge is the knowledge of nutrients and nutrition that the functions of those nutrients work in the body, such as energy, development and repair, or antioxidants and various defense mechanisms they work in. When a person is aware of fulfilling these nutritional needs, then it provides the convenience of food options which helps in increasing health or health, so that there is no use of more or less nutrients which is ill Linked to health (Worsley, 2002). Nutritional knowledge has a major effect on dietary habits and dietary choices. Insufficient knowledge contributes to inadequate food and choices in elite athletes.(Cupisti et al, 2002). Physical activity and nutritional energy, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water, generally applies to physically active individuals of both sexes. Other nutritional requirements for women are usually associated with reproduction function, in particular, menstruation, lactation and pregnant women. Also, the nutritional form of prevention and treatment for pre-menstrual syndrome, secondary amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Women’s blood loss through menstruation is a high incidence of iron deficiency found in the female population. And other factors include dietary iron intake and low absorption of iron due to food blockers (coffee, eggs, bran and other foods)(Helen Lenskyj, 2002). Other factors affect the menstrual cycle during the increase in physical activity, and contribute to poor nutritional status of the population, together with poor eating habits, menstruation and teenage pregnancy. According to the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) Report (2003), 69% of adolescent girls have anemia. Micro nutrient deficiency disorders in adolescence stage decreased immunity to disease and weak reproduction function.(Bhaskaram, 2001) Playing the game during any phase of life is no longer “a loss” for women, however, female athletes may be suffering from certain sports related health problems, including menstrual disorders. Menstruation is characteristic of hormones-induced changes within the reproductive organs each month. On the first day of menstruation, each cycle ends before the first day of the stars and next menstruation. The average length of the menstrual cycle is 28 days, while within a few days the regular cycle can also be encountered. (Karacan et al, 2013). The amount of time spent in this training can have an impact on their health. Most athletes will spend several hours training each week. Excessive exercise can be related to the spread of a disorder, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. The intention of this review is to determine whether the amount of time spent in the exercise at the risk of development of female athlete triad (Carla Southwick, 2008). Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstrual cycle for 3 to 6 consecutive months or no menstrual cycle of 16 years (Gold, 2002). Some causes of amenorrhea may include that contribute to exercise, pregnancy, thyroid disease and menstrual dysfunction include: energy balance, intensity of exercise and training practices, body weight and structure, waste food Behavior, and physical and emotional stress levels. (Manore, 2002). Recent studies have shown that women who work hard can develop reproductive disorders, including delayed menarche, short luteal phases and amenorrhea. (Ding, et al, 1988). Menstruation is part of the female reproductive cycle, which starts when the girls become mature during puberty. During menstruation, a woman gets bleeding from a uterus through vagina. The menstrual hypothalamus depends on the pituitary-ovarian function, where the amount of blood depends on the contraction of the uterus. The period of menstruation is not 3 to 7 days pregnant in each cycle, and then every period starts approximately every 28 days. The average limit for most girls ranges from 10 to 14 years to 45 to 55 years. Geographical conditions, racial factors, nutritional standards, environmental impact and strong physical activity can affect the beginning of all menarche; a woman will have 500 duration in her lifetime. Estimated blood loss is between 50 ml and 200 ml. (Adhikari P 2007)


Proposal is designed
with the following objectives:

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1.     To compare the nutritional knowledge of
eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes

2.     To compare the dietary
habits of eumenorrheic
and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes

3.     To determine the
menstrual history of eumenorrheic
and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes

4.     The relational ship between nutritional knowledge, dietary
habits and menstrual history of eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes

Limitation of the study

The study will be conducted only on menstruating female athletes
and non athletes between the ages 13 – 18years.

Only those subjects who have started
their menstrual cycle in involve my study.

Significance of the study  

·     To provide awareness regarding nutritional
knowledge eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes and
non athletes


Purpose of the

The purpose of this study is to compare Nutritional Knowledge,
Dietary Habits, Menstrual History of The Eumenorrheic and Amenorrheic Athletes
and Non Athletes


The sample will be random for this study and includes female athletes
and non-athletes. All participants are students of the district Ambala. The
target population for this study was in women’s school students.

Review of

Cupisti, (2002). The aim of this study is to investigate the dietary structure and nutritional knowledge of 60 athletes and 59 non-athlete teenage females (age, 14-18 years) using a 3-day food recall method. Consumption of daily energy reported was similar to athlete and non-athlete, but less than recommended and estimated requirements. In athletes, energy supplies were more than non-athletes with breakfast. Consumption of energy from carbohydrate was high and compared to non-athletes, lipids were less in athletes. Athletes also showed high fiber iron and vitamin A reports compared to non-athletes, consuming calcium, iron and zinc in both groups had less than 100% RDA. Athletes gave a slightly higher rate of nutrition knowledge questionnaire (77.6 vs. 71.6%, p <.01 compared to non-athletes with the correct answers. considering intake and nutrition in diet of adolescents some misconceptions lack nutrients are seen study but results athletes very good which can be found on dietary habits nutritional knowledge. frederick objective is compare bone density knowledge behavior practices four groups women: postmen women members a college track team non-athletic college-old dancers. personal information questionnaire used hour recall method meal food frequency test an attitude survey measurement spinal cord subjects was also taken. mean standard error sem score dancers significantly lower than average postmenopausal non-athlete reported eating less servings high calcium foods per month or had significant anorexia bulimia there were no differences mineral between content eaten considerable correlations .38 .32 scores not correlated each other. have more comparison all other minute practice minutes week for experienced most amenorrhea. arazi hosseini goal collegiate non-collegiate iran amount city. athlete males randomly distributed habit questionnaire. included questions questions. collected data tested by t-test one-way anova pearson correlation coefficient response rate sport general females men much higher male female. lesser athletes. need improved. hopkins et al completed new zealand at elite non-elite class level close nz guidelines non-specific group their health habits. moderately p this relationship strong among dena maureen block conducted menstrual irregularities female teenage school cross-country runners age year. years exercise history training information. status menstruation determined least one year another period. item questionnaires used. question topics such as fluid hydration supplement pre-competition special concerns body structure evaluated gender specific skin. difference observed> .05) T-tests were determining statistical significant differences in the number of nutrition knowledge between the two groups. The analysis of Chi-Square was comparing the individual questions. It has been concluded that a special remedy is not responsible for a different combination of symptoms such as menstrual disorders, age, exercise history, nutritional habits and nutritional knowledge for adolescence.Suzanne, et al; (2013). The purpose of this study was the body composition, menstruation, nutritional habits, eating disorders, collegiate volleyball players. Female volleyball players (N = 14) completed a 7-day diet food dietary recall method used, menstrual health questionnaires, and EAT-26 surveys. Body composition was determined by the 3 site skin gun test and Bod pod®. Half of the participants (50%) are considered “at-risk” (AR) for disordered eating as per the results of EAT-26. Consumption calories (1928 + 476) meet only 69.35% and energy expenditure (2780.66 + 148.88). For athletes (3.4 9 + 0.8 9 g / COH / kg / day) for 6-10 grams / day COO intake category and for athletes (1.17 + 0.35) for protein 1.2-1.7g / kg / day Recommended volume intake. Body fat percentage by using Bod Pod® (22.76 + 6.25%) In the conclusion, the current study shows that the diet of college female volleyball players is insufficient in calories, proteins, and carbohydrate; they are exposed to medical illnesses, including dysfunction risk.Dars, et al; (2014). In the teenage girls to evaluate the body mass index and nutritional status on the menstrual cycle. More than four hundred teenage girls were selected in 5 schools in Hyderabad. Data collected by trained medical undergraduate and postgraduate by meeting the girls’ school girls using a pre-tested questionnaire. BMI was calculated using the formula: BMI (kg / m2) = weight (kg) / height 2 (m2) hemoglobinometer using HB was assessed by Sahlis method. The data was analyzed using SPSS 11.0. A total of 305 girls were 76% normal menstrual, 28 girls had a continuous period of 7%, 52 girls had an infrequent period of 13% and 16 girls had 4% girls totally irregular. 305 girls, 76% of girls had normal menstrual flow, 68 girls had 17% heavy flow and 28-27% women had less flow. 152 girls 38% of girls complain of pre-monthly symptoms. Of the 231 girls, 60% were clinically anemic, 277 girls were 69% BMI between 18.5 – 24.9 kg / m2. Girls with one hundred and eight 27% of underweight children with 14 -18.49 kg / m2 BMI, sixteen 4% BMI were overweight with 25-29.99 kg / m2. A statistically significant relationship was found between BMI and social class (P