Encryption that the letters would line up resulting in


It is the element of
cryptography it uses a key or a parameter 
for data transformation.some message trequired the same length of key
which is equall to the message which is encoded ut in the same way some other
encryption algorithm uses the smaller key for encoded message.when message
received on receiver side Decryption of the data occur which iresult in orginal
message.it is used in modern time.for example 
automatic teller machine used this method.this also permit message to be
authenticated by creating digital signature this is very useful when sensitive
email are sent for communication.

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20 cipher
is any method of encrypting text (concealing its readability and meaning). It
is also sometimes used to refer to the encrypted text message itself although
here the term ciphertext is preferred.



 Torestore the original information from
theencrypted form.


 The data in its original form is called plain


 The data which is
encrypted is called ciphertext.

Cryptanalysis  The.

Cryptology-  The areas of
cryptography and cryptanalysis are called cryptology.


Historical Cryptography

Ancient Egypt


ancient of cryptography is from Egyption.Nearly 4000 years agoon the tomb of
nobleman Khnumhotep.He used unusuall symbol for information hiding.this method
replace  by cipher in modern age.with the
passage of time Egyption culture evolved 
it become more common.there are many theory about why Egyption used
encryption system some people think that they want to hide theire religious
rituals from common people.



about 500 B.C. the Spartans dev evolved a device called Scytale.this device was
used to send and receive private secret message. The shape of the device was a
cylinder in which a narrow strip of parchment was wound. Length-wise   message was then written on the parchment.
Once it was unwound the message on the strip of parchment became unreadable. On
receiver side to receive message an identical cylinder was needed. It was only
then that the letters would line up resulting in the original message.













earliest military use of cryptography comes from Julius Caesar 2,000 years ago.
Caesar, being commander of the Roman army, solved the problem of secure
communication with his troops.


developed a substitution ciprmethod in which he 
substitute letters from different letters. Only those who knew the
substitution used could decipher the secret messages. Now when the messengers
were overtaken the secret messages were not exposed. This gave the Ro man army
a huge advantage during war.








Jefferson Wheel Cipher

the late 1700’s, Thomas Jefferson give  a
cipher system which was  similar to the
Vigenere Cipher except that its security was high. He invented a machine which
has 26 wheels and on each wheel alphabets were randomly scattered. The wheels
were numbered and ordered with a specified order. This order is the key to the
encryption algorithm








Modern Encryption

The “one-time pad” encryption algorithm which
was invented in  early 1900’s, andi  has been proven as unbreakable. The one-time
pad algorithm is derived from a previous cipher called Vernam Cipher. One-time
pad called unbrokeable because of two reason first is that the key which is
used is completely random and second is that it is implemented by using modular
addition of XOR which is used to combine plain text with key elements.

 An example of this is shown in Figure 11. The
key used for encryption is also used for decryption. Applying the same key to
the ciphertext results back to the plaintext.









Future Methods of Encryption

Elliptic Curve Cryptography


Curve Cryptography has been already  technically
invented but it is not considered  a
future technique of cryptography and reason behind this is that its advantages
and disadvantages are not fully understood.  Elliptic Curve Cryptography  is an approach of encryption that utilizes
the complex nature of elliptic curves in finite fields. ECC algorithms  are same like  Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and RSA
Encryption. It has only only  difference that
is the numbers are chosen from a finite field which are  defined with an elliptic curve expression.




















Quantum Computation


computation is used in a quantum computer or processor. Modern computers use a
binary system to store data which is known as 
binary format in which only o and 1 can be stored.Bit by bit method is
used in modern computers for computation. Quantum computers use multiple state
of quantam super positionfor  storing
data. After that  these states are stored
in quantum bits or qubits. simultaneously each qubit can store a set number
values which is depend on  the design of




has been a historical pattern that shows the country with the strongest
encryption has been a leader in military power. By studying cryptography and
encryption, a country could strengthen its defenses and have the necessary
means to survive in a hostile world. An understanding of encryption can also
help individuals with securing private data and information. Even though it is
severely unethical, our communication with one another is constantly being
monitored. Those who monitor our communication can include governments,
internet service providers, hackers, identity thieves, and more. By learning to
use cryptography for secure communication, we can safe guard ourselves from
being compromised by those who could steal our information. Cryptography is illegal
in many countries because the local government wishes to be able to read any
transmission sent. Many people speculate that the United States does not need
these laws because the NSA has developed methods of cryptanalysis that break
all encryption methods currently known.