“Etiology,” the study of the causes of diseases. Psychiatric

“Etiology,” derived from the Greek word for “cause,” is the study of the causes of diseases. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems such as PTSD are “multi-determinedG1 “—that is, they are the product not of any single “cause” but instead of a complex interplay (Carlson, Dalenberg, & Muhtadie, 2008) of “nature,” which is a person’s inborn or acquired biological and psychological characteristics, and “nurture,” which involves the influences in the physical and social environments that promote or interfere with healthy adaptation or illness, learning or disability, and growth or developmental delays. When viewing PTSD throuG2 gh a sociocultural lens includes relation to cultural factors/ coping mechanisms and social environment. Social cohesions plays an important role when leads the social community and social environment and the bond between society and community. It is important for the family to understand their problem and be supportive. A support plays a vital role to help the victim to recover from PTSD.G3  Causes of PTSD in children focus on psychological factors such as emotion regulations and their view of self and others as well as neurobiological factors that affect various brain areas and reactivity to stress (Mash & Wolfe, 2016). As far as causes go, there are some clues about biological factors related to the development of PTSD. For example, people with G4 dysfunctionsG5  of the hypothalamic-G6 pituitaryG7 -adrenal axis, deficits in arousal and sleep-regulating systems in the brain, and problems with the endogenous opioid system- which helps with pain control have all been shown to be at higheG8 r risk for developing PTSD. PTSD has also been linking to having a family history of mood disorders or anxiety disorders. The precise mechanism through that ties all of these G9 G10 relationships together has yet to be worked out. (Kirkpatrick et. al, 2014). Children are deeply impacted by the events that take place around them. Even though they may not understand what they see and hear, they absorb and are affected by the people they rely on for love and security. Constant, unrelenting negative experiences – known as “toxic stress” – take a toll on a child’s growth and development. Parents and caregivers play a very important role in helping infants and toddlers heal from traumatic experiences.G11