Field in aqueous solution. Absorption properties of polymers can

 Field of the Invention

This invention relates to potassium acrylate based
superabsorbent polymer, to method of manufacturing thereof, a method of
formulate the superabsorbent polymer, furthermore the use of SAPs product for
soil conditioner and improve nutrients.This procedure also contains a compound comprising
cross-linked potassium based absorbent copolymers together with fast and slow
soluble nano nutrients. 

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Background
of the Invention and Prior Art

Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) also known as hydrogel are water-insoluble,
hydrophilic cross-linked
polymers, are able to absorbing large amounts of aqueous liquids and nano
nutrients in liquid form, such as potassium, calcium and phosphorus, and of
retaining the absorbed water or liquid nano nutrients under some amount of pressure
or load. It is also retaining the absorbed liquid amount in normal atmosphere
at a slow speed without any pressure.    The SAPs are produced by free radical
polymerization under preferred use of ethylenically unsaturated monomers, such
as acrylic acid and alkali salts, in aqueous solution. Absorption properties of
polymers can different by selection of the monomer composition, alkali salt,
cross-linkers, initiators, and polymerization condition and processing for the
formation of polymer gel. Cross-linking is permit to polymer to absorb water or
fluids without dissolving. The initiator may be added in a single or multiple
stages, also multiple initiators may be used.  The swelling process of SAPs are, when polymer gel contact
with solvent it try to penetrate into polymer network and create a 3D-molecular
network, enlarge at the same time, osmotic pressure and the network elastic
force cause of swelling.  SAPs may be used as smart materials, for example for
fabricate of sensors or actuators for a wide number of industrial applications.
Further application as absorbent cores in the field of personal hygienic and
sanitary field, there innovative applications such as for example medical field
for controlled release drug formulations, absorb body fluid for example blood,
in wound dressing, artificial muscles, in tissue engineering for improve and
restored tissue functions, in wire and cable for water blocking, as spill
control for cleaning and removing chemicals, in solar pond for solar energy, also
used in agriculture and horticulture for example in devices for the controlled
release of water.        WO2012001707 A1, discloses the
non-composites and composites superabsorbent polymers using multiple monomers.US 4051086 A, discloses a polyacrylamide
polysaccharide graft copolymer treated with glyoxal to increase its wicking
action. The copolymer is applied by coating on sand or soil particles.

US 5118719 A, discloses an enhancing
absorption rates of superabsorbent by incorporating a blowing agent using a
combination of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate. 

US 7009020 B2, discloses the method of
forming superabsorbent polymer products using cornstarch graft polymerization
with acrylonitrile.

US 20020095965 A1, discloses the
polyacrylamide suspension for used in agriculture application.

EP 2535359 A1, discloses the controlled
release agriculture product using citric acid cross-linking of
carboxymethylecellulose/hydroxymethylecellulose mixtures.

US
4303438 discloses graft polymers formed from lignosulfate with acrylic acid or
methacrylic acid which are used for improving soil structure. The graft
polymers of this invention are said to be superior as “most of them can be
diluted to any extent and sprayed without clogging of the nozzles.

CA 2549200 A1, discloses methods of making and
using a superabsorbent polymer product including a bioactive, growth-promoting
additive using starch graft polymerization.

US20030097864 A1, discloses
hydro absorbent soil conditioner using potassium based acrylamide cross-linked
polymers which is apply as soil additive with various dosage.

The prior art references
do not disclose the process of applying insoluble superabsorbent polymers to
agriculture soils or crops with nano nutrients. In
fact this property is not thought to be present in most polymers prepared for
this purpose as it is cited as an unexpected and highly desirable property of
graft polymers described in US 4303438.In 1996 Esposito and co-workers, studying the synthetic
process proposed by Anbergen and Opperman, developed a method for increasing
the absorption properties of the gel, studied mainly on the physical properties
of the material. The basic idea was the induction of micro porosity into the
polymer structure, so as to promote absorption and retention of water by
capillarity. Said micro porosity was induced during the drying step, which was
carried out by phase inversion in a nonsolvent for the polymer, and the
absorption properties of the material thus obtained were markedly superior to
those of the air-dried gel, according to EP 2535359 A1.The main factor in the development of superabsorbent is the
very high swelling capacity on contact with liquids, also referred to as free
swelling capacity; later it turned out, however, that not only the amount of
absorbed liquid or nutrients is importance but also the stability of the
swollen and retention gel. However, absorbency, also referred to as swell
ability or free swelling capacity, on the one hand, and gel strength of a
cross-linked polymer, on the other hand, represent contrary properties, as is
known from U.S. Re No. 32,649. This means that polymers having a particularly
high absorbency exhibit a poor strength of the swollen gel so that the gel is
deformable under pressure (e.g., the load of a body) and further liquid
distribution and absorption is prevented. According to U.S. Re 32,649 a
balanced relation between absorption capacity (gel volume) and gel strength. It
was found that improved water-absorbing polymers are obtained if hydrogels
having a microcellular structure, which are
produced by using blowing agents, are used and these resins are subjected to a
treatment of surface cross-linking, e.g., according to the process of DE-PS 40
20 780. Additionally, it was found that the cations of lithium, sodium, and,
preferably, of potassium, rubidium, cesium, as well as of ammonium, monomethyl
ammonium, dimethyl ammonium or trimethyl ammonium, which are present in the
salts resulting from the neutralization of the acid-group-containing monomers,
have a decisive influence on absorption capacity and rate. It turned out that a
considerable improvement in the absorption capacity under load and an
improvement in the absorption rate occurred.There are various component are using as a cross-linkers to
forming SAPs, The example of crosslinking agent include: glycerol; cyclic
adipamide; diglycidyl compound; diepoxide; methylene bis acrylamide; bis
hydroxyalkylamide, for example bis hexamethylene hydroxypropyl adipamide;
formaldehyde, such as melamine-formaldehyde resins and urea-formaldehyde; isocyanates
including diisocyanates or triisocyanates; epoxy resin, typically in the
presence of a base catalyst; and derivatives and mixtures thereof.  There are various alternative methods for
cross-linking of SAPs may be utilize. For example, irradiation, gamma rays, electron
beam and x-rays. For example, a SAPs hydrogel may be cross-linked through
exposure to x-ray or gamma electromagnetic radiation, such as through
irradiation, or to an electron beam and the like. Irradiation creating free
radicals in the copolymer chain by cross-linking. For example, cross-linking of
the starch graft copolymers by irradiation. Few times irradiation are used to
re-form the cross-linked copolymer chains after annealing or melting process. Furthermore,
it may be useful to perform the irradiation process in an atmosphere relatively
free of oxygen. In addition, cross-linking agents may be useful in the
production of SAPs, cross-linking agent may also be used either a single
self-reactive functional group or multiple self-reactive functional groups or
multiple co-reactive functional groups are incorporated into the mixture, may
also be used self-cross-linking copolymers.Throughout the process of producing the
SAPs using cross-crosslinking, multiple additives may optionally be included at
various stages throughout the production of SAPs. For example, additives to promote plant growth may be included at
some stage of the SAPs production process, such as previous to drying, as would
be apparent to those having skill in the art with the aid of the present
disclosure. One exemplary additive includes nutrients. In some embodiments,
controlled-release nutrients may be used. Furthermore additives that may also
be included are, pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, kelp products, soil based
fertilizers as alternative, such as those disclosed in U.S. Patent Publication
No. 2007/0015878.