Global as a housing provider, public housing lessened as

Global PerspectiveThe effects of urbanization can be analysed in three sustainable developments: economic, social and environmental protection. WHO states that rapid and unplanned patterns of urban development are causing developing cities to have emerging environment and health hazards, whereas well-managed urbanization fosters social and economic advancement, improving quality of life for all. (WHO “The urban environment”)There is a well-established connection between the urbanization level and GDP. Urbanised cities are responsible for over 80% of GNP globally. (United Nation “World Urbanization Prospects) They have a wider range of opportunities and basic services, which was deprived of in rural areas, explaining the movement of rural-urban migrants. This also increases job competition; leaving only the people with greatest abilities. Therefore, there is massive growth in the informal sector involving selling goods on streets illegally or collecting waste for money. Some resort to begging, crimes or prostitution. (Edexcel International GCSE Geography | Pearson qualifications written by Michael Witherick and Steve Milner) Between 1960 and 1970, global organisations, such as World Bank and UN-Habitat, began focusing their urban development efforts on redeveloping housing and implementing basic necessities. The city is no longer able to provide land or manage cities, where the neediest would be the primary beneficiaries, and in the context of state retreat as a housing provider, public housing lessened as a policy option. Therefore, informal settlements flourished with people building their own dwelling from scrap materials on marginal lands, causing part of the population to suffer from extreme hunger, poverty and discrimination. According to WHO, rapid urban development threatens the environment and health of citizens. On a global scale, the demand for unsustainable use of energy resources has become a major issue. These lead to climate change-related health impacts, which are responsible for around 150,000 deaths annually, and other global environmental changes such as loss of biodiversity. (Kiran Rajashekariah WWF IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON BIODIVERSITY )Analysis/EvaluationGlobally, more disadvantages are shown, including the destruction of environment, housing distribution and the informal sector. The advantages include better overall living standards due to good prospect of economic development. UN is making an effort in achieving its development goals, however there is still a lot to be done.Future ScenarioUN foresees the global rural population will peak in 2021, at 3.4 billion, then decline gradually to about 3.05 by 2050. (World’s Population Increasingly Urban with More than Half Living in Urban Areas | UN DESA Department of Economic and Social Affairs.) The continuous decline along with the increasing demand from the population, will likely result in mankind depriving the city of its natural resources, leading to severe predicaments, such as the extinction of species and fossil fuels being used up. Overall, the living quality will decline. Course of actionUNFPA cooperates with UN-Habitat to eradicate poverty by building capabilities of youngsters in the urbanization process. (Urbanization | UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund, Urbanization) These will enable them to get better jobs and potentially break the poverty cycle.The 17 SDGs for Sustainable Development response to the informal sector is to “protect labour rights, promoting safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants and those in precarious employment”. (United Nations Sustainable development goals) Since the informal sector is not recognised by the government, there are no regulations, guaranteed safety and health arrangements. This course of action would ensure the safety of workers in the informal sector.Personal PerspectiveI agree with UN’s course of action and believe this is a reliable course to take because . Even though several global organisations are trying their best to solve this situation, as an individual, a country, and a whole, we have an obligation to take part and help create a better world.