In and simple language on the benefits and possible

In doing research, there are five main ethical pillars that must be followed by researcher. First, minimize the risk of harm to participants. This principle stress on how a research should not harm participants by considering all aspects that could bring harm such as physical harm, psychological distress and discomfort, social disadvantage, financial status or an invasion of participant’s privacy and anonymity. Non-maleficence requires a high level of sensitivity from the researcher about what constitutes “harm” (Ford L., 2009). Discomfort and harm can be physiological, emotional, social and economic in nature (Burns N., 2005). By acknowledging these risk aspects, interventions to avoid or minimizing the risk of harm could be taken by researcher. Second, attain informed consent from participants. The idea of informed consent is one of the foundations of research. Informed consent means the knowing consent of a person without undue inducement or any element of force, extortion, duress or any other form of constraint or coercion. It is the researcher’s responsibility to provide sufficient information in comprehensible and simple language on the benefits and possible risks ahead of the participant’s involvement in the research, so that participant can make a well-informed judgement about participation. Informed consent is not just a form, but a process, when it was done appropriately, the process assures that participants are willingly participating in the research with full knowledge and information of relevant risks and benefits. In some cases, that involve people with low autonomy such as young children, very ill people or mentally disables, they could only be included in research under specific circumstances, as they not able to make fully informed decisions on their own. They should always be protected. ┬áThe third component of research ethics is by ensuring the anonymity and individuality of research participants. Protecting anonymity of information from participants means that either the researcher does not collect personal information of participants such as name, address, email, job, year of services or the researcher does not link individual responses with participants’ identities. Unless it is necessarily essential to the aimed protocol, participant’s personal details should be keep ‘anonymous’ to protect the participant confidentiality. Nonetheless, permission should be obtained before any confidential information is used. Forth principle of research ethics is to reject any kinds of deceptive practices. Deceptive may not be seen as an issue if an informed consent has been performed, however the question is, how can the participants know what the research requires of them if they are being deceived? this question makes the use of deceptive practices in doubt. Therefore, dissertation research should avert any types of deceptive practices. However, deception is sometimes being allowed in covert research where the identity of the observer and the purpose of the research is not known to participants. This is most likely to be the case where a research needs an observation rather than through direct contact with participants, for example; observing what type of customers who like giving tips in the tip jar.Lastly, allowing the participants to withdraw is one of the principles of research ethics that should be followed by researcher. Participants should have the right to withdraw from the research process at any stage and when the decision to withdraw was made, the participant should not be pressured or coerced in any way in order to stop them from withdrawing. According to Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines, an individual can withdraw from research at any time without revealing the reason of discontinuation.