In negative expectations about the immediate and long-range future.

In the present study, a measure of hopelessness, i.e., Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS; Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974) was used. This measure consists of 20 true-false statements that assess the extent of negative expectations about the immediate and long-range future. Each of the statements is scored as 1 or 0. 9 statements are keyed FALSE, and 11 statements are keyed TRUE  to indicate the endorsement of pessimism. The item scores are summed to yield a total score that can range from 0 to 20 with higher scores indicating greater hopelessness. Score of 0 to 3 is within the minimal range, 4 to 8 is mild, 9 to 14 is moderate, and greater than 14 is severe. The test-retest reliability in a sample of 21 CCT patients with mixed diagnoses who were tested during an intake evaluation and one week later was .69. The test- retest reliability for another sample of 99 CCT at intake and six weeks later was .66(p< .001). Concurrent validity was calculated in two samples : (1) 23 outpatients in general medical practice, and (2) 62 hospitalized patients  who had recently made suicide attempts. In the general practice sample it was .74( p< .001) and in the attempted suicide sample it was .62( p < .005). Some example of measures are as follows:I look forward to the future with hope and enthusiasm. I might as well give up because there is nothing i can do about making things better for myself. When things are going badly, I am helped by knowing that they cannot stay that way forever. I can't imagine what my life could be like in ten years.In this research,  effectiveness of a web based intervention in reducing hopelessness was studied. The intervention consists of four modules which were given weekly to the participants. A module starts by providing information, followed by an exercise which they need to complete in  one week's time. Ideally, the subject needs to spend 15 minutes a day to perform an exercise. Every week an email was sent of the new module to the sample as a reminder which could only be available after the successful completion of the previous modules.Contents of module :Module 1 aims at teaching what is Hope. It began with an inspirational story of Nick Vujicic. He was born in 1982 in Melbourne, Australia, without any arms and legs. He's an author, a musician, an actor, and his hobbies include fishing, painting and swimming.Module 2 explains the 'ABC model' which states that emotions (Consequences) are caused by a person's Belief about an Activating event (the trigger). It was followed by  Exercises focusing on identifying automatic thoughts.Module 3 aims at teaching how to counter negative thoughts and enhance positive behavior. It focused on considering those thoughts as a hypothesis and testing them using selective attention. Module 4 aims at providing the individual with inspirational stories and quotes, such as, 'No matter the number of times you fail, you must be determined to succeed. You must not lose hope. Don't stop in your storm. Don't give up so easily'. It also comprises of talks by various people and exercises which an individual can practice in the future also.Procedure115 college students from the age group 18-25 were selected through convenient sampling method. These students were living in Delhi. Their level of hopelessness was measured using Beck Hopelessness Scale. It consists of 20 items which measures the extent of negative attitudes about the future (pessimism) as perceived by an individual. Each of the statement was later scored as 1 or 0, resulting in a total score range of 0 to 20. A higher score indicates more hopelessness. Individual lying the mild ( 4-8) , moderate (9-14) and severe (15 and above) range of hopelessness were identified. These participants were given intervention in the form of a module weekly. Every week a reminder email was sent informing about the next module which was available after the successful completion of the previous modules. The intervention began with an inspirational story of Nick Vujicic who despite being born with no arms and no legs , never lose hope. He is a speaker, football player and a swimmer. He has travelled the world giving sessions and narrating his life story. This video was followed by various modules consisting of activities to be performed by the participant. In the end of the intervention,  55 students effectively completed the course. After the successful completion of intervention, the posttest was given to the participants to analyse and to check if there is any improvement because of the intervention we imparted to the active participants and whether our hypothesis is accepted or rejected.