INTRODUCTION: system initialization is performed as distributing the shadow


            In Body Area Network (BAN), sensors
are implanted under the skins. Then the values of Patient Health Information is
retrieved and these datas are send to the hospital server. According to the
data which was received, doctor prescribe the medicine for the patients.
Patient health information contains the details of Blood Pressure, Heart rate,
Respiration rate. During the process of collecting the data, nodes may be
hacked by the attacker in the network. Attack may be a Replay attack, Denial of
Service attack, Sybil attack, collusion attack, collision attack, node capture
attack, black hole attack, stolen verifier attack, impersonation attack, insider
attack 1. Due to this reasons data may be lost. So it lead to the incorrect
treatment to the patient from the doctor side. Wrong treatment affect the
patient health, sometimes it lead to the death of the patient. Similarly, Due
to the low energy, the node may be shutdown and the data may not send. So
security, energy is the main issue in BAN. In our proposed system, Security
issue is solved. Our proposed approach is used to send the data from the client
side (Mobile Phone) (ie) Control Unit to the server (Server side) in a secure
manner. In general, BAN is in three tier architecture: WBAN sensor, Personal
Server, Medical Server2. WBAN Sensor tier consist of Wearable sensors which
are capable of sense and communicate. Personal Server it interface the sensor
nodes and mobile phone or ZigBee. Medical Server includes the database in the
hospital server.

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            In paper 3 security is provided by
four phases. In phase 1, system initialization is performed as distributing the
shadow ID and emergency key values by the Key Generation Center (KGC). In phase
2, private key is generated based on the user attributes and it is used for the
decryption process. Then session key is encrypted with the access tree
structure. In phase 4, two phase commitment is established and it ensures the
reliable and secure connection.


MASK-BAN 4 is implemented in 4 phases. In the
initial authenticated pairwise key generation phase, adaptive secret bit
generation (ASBG) technique is used to generate the pairwise key. In the
authenticated secret capacity broadcast phase, each node has the knowledge of
all the channel capacity information and the details of the trusted neighbors.
In deciding maximum Entropy phase, maximum size of the secret key is found and
maximum entropy is also found. In key aggregation broadcast phase, Maximum path
is found. The key values of that path is concatenated with the secret key.


By using elliptic curve cryptography 5, an explicit
mutual authentication between the nodes are established. It includes four
phases. System initialization phase performs offline tasks and distributes the
identities to the sensor and coordinator nodes. Authentication phase is based
on the timestamp values. It is based on secrecy of the one-way hash function, elliptic
curve discrete logarithm problem and encryption algorithm. It resistance to the
data replay attack, legal node masquerade attack, Sybil attack, fabrication
attack and provide privacy.


 One Time Pad
value (OTP) value 6 is used to provide security. It have been generated by random
number generator. One copy has to be stored on the base station and another
copy has to be transferred to the node. It is able to recharge OTPs to a node,
a secure channels has to be used. Encryption is done by XOR the value of OTP
and the plaintext. Decryption is done by XOR the value of OTP and the cipher
text. OTP used only once. But copies of the OTP are destroyed immediately after
use. This results in a cipher text that has no relation with the plaintext when
the key is unknown. Replace the memory card is the one way of exchanging the
pad. OTP generated in a random manner so it provides more security.


            Privacy of the node is established
7 by using anonymous authentication protocol. It consist of three phases. In
User Registration Phase, legal user should registered to the gateway. During
this phase, the gateway directly access a sensor data. Remedy phase provides
the remedy for DOS attack in WSN based anonymous authentication protocols.
Shadow Id and Emergency key is used in this phase. Remedy request is send to
the gateway. In the  Re-Loading Phase,
the shadow identity and emergency key pairs are reloaded with the new pairs.


system provides pervasive and adaptive medical sytem for continuous monitoring
using environmental and wearable sensors. ALARM-NET implements a WSN for smart
healthcare by creating a medical history log, while preserving the patient’s
privacy. Authorized careproviders may monitor resident patient’s health and
activity patterns, such as circadian rhythm changes, which may signify changes
in healthcare needs. Sensor can sense even a little changes in the health


SMART 9, it was developed to monitor physiological
signals from patients in the waiting areas of emergency departments. There have
been various cases in which the medical team has found that the patient’s
health deteriorates rapidly while waiting in an emergency room. Since time is
of an essence in this situation, patient’s lives cannot be risked because of
the lack of attention provided in emergency rooms. To help in solving this problem,
this system can be used to collect data from various patients waiting in an
Emergency room, and wirelessly send it to a central computer that collects and
analyzes the data. Calculations are performed at the central server to issue an
alert signal if the health of a particular patient deteriorates. This way,
patients can receive treatment before the condition worsens.


CareNet 10
developed an integrated wireless environment used for remote health care systems.
It offers features such as: high reliability and performance, scalability,
security and integration with web-based portal systems. High reliability is
achieved using a 2-tier architecture. The portal allows caregivers to efficiently
access the sensor network data through a unified medical record system