Jean-Jacques of the French Revolution and the overall development

Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s was born on the 28th June 1712 and died on the 2nd July 1778. He was a Francophone Genevan philosopher of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment in France and across Europe. He also influenced aspects of the French Revolution and the overall development of modern political and educational thought. The Age of Enlightenment was the primary source of legitimacy and authority. The biggest effect that the Enlightenment made in the period was the division between the state, the church and liberty which all lead to some progress in a way. One of his most important and famous works is Emile, a book that helped define some of the teaching methods used nowadays. Rousseau believed that human beings are good by nature. This book was very controversial due to such methods of how the main character of the book was taught and mostly about how Rousseau presented religious views. Rousseau got banned both from Paris and Geneva due to the publication of Emile. Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Philosophical Critical Thinking in Early Childhood Education Curriculum Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s educational philosophy is the basis of teaching children through hands-on situations, which today, this method of teaching can also be called ‘natural consequences’ teaching. Although this was in a way a disciplinary method of teaching, Rousseau made sure that none of his students gets harmed through the process. Education for Rousseau is about perceiving needs around us. He understands the human cognitive operation through need, reason and freedom. As a person understands the need, the person finds a reason for the need and the action for the need comes from their freedom. Rousseau divided childhood into three stages which were reflected by the evolution that he was living at the moment. He used to argue that children from birth till the age of twelve are guided mainly by their emotions and impulses, from the age of twelve till the age of sixteen their reasons start to develop and the last stage is that from the age of sixteen the child can start to develop into an adult. When the child starts to develop into an adult, it is vital for Rousseau that a manual skill where thought and creativity are involved is thought of the child. This skill should be enough to the young adult to make a living out of if they find themselves in some crisis later on. When the child reaches the third stage, according to Rousseau the child is also able to have a (preferably) opposite-sex partner. Rousseau believed that the males should dominate the females as in his book ‘Emile’, Sophie was the ideal figure of womanhood while Emile was the ideal figure for manhood. Sophie was educated to be governed by her husband Emile, and the male himself was educated to be independent. It was a remarkable feature that Rousseau believed in, the distinction between the personal, private relations and the public world of political relations. He believed that women should stay at home taking care of the household and taking responsibility for childcare and early childhood education. The fact that woman supposed to stay at home and take care of all the household was ideal for a functional household. Rousseau was criticised by people, mostly by feminists like Mary Wollstonecraft for this philosophical thought. Rousseau’s educational method of teaching was very child-centred and criticised by other philosophers. A child centred-education approach is when children control their learning instead of being guided by the teacher. Children get to choose what they will learn and explore, while the teacher takes clues from them and create an exciting environment for them by making it appropriate both for them and the curriculum. This initiative by the teacher is the contrast of the traditional teaching method where the teacher is the superior adult in the class who teaches the children a predetermined curriculum. Even though Rousseau was criticised for such teaching method, other philosophers like John Dewey were influenced by his thoughts and used them in the modern educational practices. In fact, this new method is taught to be more efficient than the traditional kindergarten teaching method. In the 19th century, the kindergarten was believed to be “a garden for children”. It was considered to be the place where children could grow at their own pace and develop skills by exploring their unique interests.Jean-Jacques Rousseau did not create any particular teaching technique which ensures that is best for children to learn through. The most important feature of his philosophical thought was that children get to develop sense-worthy and morality. His philosophical thought on education was to be carried out by getting the child away from the hassle of the country and taking the child into the countryside. Taking the child away from the core of a country, helped the child to learn from hands-on experiences. The child needs to move away from the country so that they are further away from the bad habits that can develop from being raised in the country. The usage of books was reduced and instead, he prefers to teach children through learning experiences. He raised the woman to be governed instead of being governed(mostly by males) while the child’s emotions are an essential lesson amongst all. The child needs to know the reason for doing such emotion.His most famous work where he explains his educational, philosophical thought is the book of  ‘Emile’, half treatise and a half novel which tells the story of a fictional man named Emile. In this book, Rousseau unearths the development of Emile and the education he received which help him develop into the ideal man for Rousseau ideology. Contrastingly, the character of Emile is in the form of a man which was decidedly not accepted in the 18th century. Rousseau creates an ideal pedagogy for each developmental stage that the child goes through while developing. The book of Emile has five sections that represent different stages. Books one and two are about the Age of Nature up to the age of twelve, books three and four describe the transitional stages of adolescence and book five described the Age of Wisdom between the ages of twenty and twenty-five. Although Rousseau claims that there is another stage, this stage is not included in Emile. The other final stage is the Age of Happiness.