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John ChamesianProfessor OjserkisUnited States History 10124 November, 2017Why did the United States Population Grow so Rapidly During the First Half of the 19th Century”The territories of the United States spread across the many geographic  regions  and climates. The land stretches from the tropics to the edges of the Arctic. These varied terrains have attracted, challenged and supported many different groups of people. America’s relatively low population density and its relatively high standard of living, along with opportunities  for free expressions continue to fuel immigration to the United States. The nation remains a magnet for immigrants, despite the fact that substantial disparities exist in wealth and in access to resources between recent immigrants and more established Americans there was no restriction on immigration until  late 19th century. The immigrants came to United States from all parts of the world.  However, in the course of American history there has been a shift in the areas that contributed the largest number of  immigrants. In the 1790s the largest number of immigrants came from Great Britain, Ireland, central and western Africa and the Caribbean” (USA Online).The first half of the 19th Century is known to be the Era of the American Territorial Expansion. This time in history in the U.S. is marked by the growth of a young nation. The territorial expansion begins in 1803 when Thomas Jefferson buys the State of Louisiana from Napoleon who at the time had given up on any hope of  conquering America. Napoleon was at war with  European countries at that time and needed money. The Louisiana purchase from Napoleon more than doubled the land of the United States. In the beginning of the 19th Century it was Thomas Jefferson who represented the Democratic-Republican Party. Jefferson ran against and defeated John Adams who represented the Federalist party. He won the race by eight electoral votes and became the third President of The United States from, 1800-1808. ” Thomas Jefferson’s theory of government, known as Jeffersonian Republicanism, held that simple,                                                                                                                                                                     limited government was best for the people” (        ). Jefferson used executive powers as a president to decentralize the government, to cut costs, reduce bureaucracy and eliminate taxes.  Afterwards came  James Madison, the fourth president of our country (1808-1816). Known as “the father of the Constitution”, Madison declared a war against Great Britain in 1812, caused by the British Impressment of the American Navy. Under the leadership of general Andrew Jackson,  U.S. declares a victory and the Treaty of Ghent was signed in New Orleans. The Federalist Party who opposed the war had ended, industries were encouraged and United States emerges as a strong, free, and independent nation as a result of the War of 1812. Next, in 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty was signed by U.S. and Spain, which transferred  Florida and most Southern areas of South-East of United States. Another major event that followed in the first half of 19th century is the Indian Removal Act, passed by Congress in 1830 with support from president Andrew Jackson. Under this law The Cherokee Tribe of the Native Americans who lived in Georgia were forced by American troops to move to the West. Most of the Indians traveled forcibly on foot, therefore thousands had died. The territorial Expansion continued in mid-nineteenth century. People moved during 1840’s  from East to West . Many believed that  this westward movement was predestined by god.”Expansion westward seemed perfectly natural to many Americans in the mid-nineteenth century.  Like the Massachusetts Puritans who hoped to build a  ‘city upon a hill’, courageous pioneers believed that America had a divine obligation to stretch the boundaries of their noble republic to the Pacific Ocean. Independence had won in the Revolution and reaffirmed in the war of 1812. The spirit of Nationalism that swept the nation in the next two decades demanded more territory. The “every man is equal” mentality of the Jacksonian Era fueled this optimism. Now with the territory up to the Mississippi river claimed and settled and the Louisiana Purchase explored,  Americans  headed west in droves. Newspaper editor John O’Sullivan coined the term “Manifest Destiny”  in 1845 to describe the essence of this mindset.” Westward expansion continued in the first half of the nineteenth century as a result of the Wars that America fought with its neighbors. In 1845 United States added Texas which became the 28th state. Texas had gained its independence from Mexico in 1836. After the Treaty of Oregon that took place on  December 29, 1846, the territory of Oregon was transferred to United States from Great Britain. Mexican Cession was obtained in the Treaty of Guadalupe, Hidalgo in 1948.                                                                                           Mexico lost nearly one-third of its land in the agreement which ended the Mexican-American War. The Gadsden Purchase (1854) settled the territorial disputes that arose from the Treaty of  Guadalupe, Hidalgo. The U.S. eventually bought the land from Mexico for $15 million. All the territories that were obtained as a result of the War: Treaty and Settlement with Mexico are the present day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and parts of Colorado and New Mexico. Between 1800 and 1854, the U.S. territory grew from the original 13 colonies to what is now a vast land  of the continental United States.Territorial expansion or the westward movement during the first half of the nineteenth century is what created an Economic Development which in turn promoted the population growth in the United States. “Cincinnati, in present day southwest Ohio, provides a good example of the speed of western expansion during the early republic. Founded in 1788 as a Fort                                     to repel Shawnee and Miami Indian attack, it served a chiefly military purpose until the major Indian defeat at Fallen Timbers in 1794. Soon after, its location 450 miles downriver from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, made it a strategic trade location for agricultural products from newly settled farm lands. Although its population was a modest 750 in 1800, by 1810 that figure had tripled and vastly larger numbers passed through Cincinnati on their way to settle the Old Northwest of Ohio,  Indiana and Illinois” (U.S. History Praxis Topics).America has been a nation of immigrants from its earliest days. Its first inhabitants were the ones who crossed the land bridge connecting Asia and North America  thousands of years ago. The first Europeans who arrived in the New World in early 1500’s were the Spanish and the French, followed by the English in the 1600’s. A large portions of these immigrants who arrived in America came in search of religious freedom given the  religious persecution in Europe, while others came seeking economic opportunities. During the colonial period, black people from West Africa were brought to America against their own will and were forced to become slaves. Upon hearing about opportunities for better life, economic advancement, and religious freedom in the New World, the people from the Old World, mainly Europeans and Asians, continued migrating to United States during the first half of the Nineteenth Century.”Another major wave of immigration occurred From 1815 to 1865.  The majority of these newcomers hailed from Northern and Western Europe. Approximately one-third came from Ireland, which experienced a massive famine in the mid 19th century.  In the 1840s almost half of America’s Immigrants were from Ireland alone. Typically impoverished, these Irish immigrants settled near their point of arrival in cities along the East Coast” (History.com). “Also, in the early to mid 19th century,  the U.S. received some five million GermanImmigrants.  Many of them journeyed to the present day Midwest to buy farms or congregated in such cities as Milwaukee, St. Louis and Cincinnati.”  (History.com). A significant number of Asian immigrants settled in the United States. As a result of hearing about the California Gold Rush, some  25,000 Chinese had migrated there by the early 1850sThe United States population in the first half of the nineteenth century grew by about a third every decade. According to the census data, “the size of the U.S population in 1800 was 5,308,483 while in 1850 the size of the population grew to 23,191,867” (   ) This tremendous growth was attributed to territorial expansion, immigration, decrease in death rate, and increase in life expectancy, and  the Industrial Revolution. The period between late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries witnessed tremendous efforts in health care reforms which established new sanitation measures in urban areas of the United States. These measures included construction of sanitary sewer plants to treat waste water, installation of central clean water and distribution system, abandonment of barrel waters and draining swamps and flooded areas where mosquitoes bred. There was also tearing down of abandoned houses, supervising cemeteries and burial practices, enforcing quarantine of arrived passengers and conducting frequent health inspections. Along with sanitation measures, there were other disease preventive measures being developed such as vaccines. All these sanitary measures created a healthier living environment which helped reduce the spread of diseases and subsequently reduced the death rate and increased the life expectancy of the population. Although the inflow of immigrants contributed for building the American society, the major factor of the population increase in the United States was related to the surplus of births over deaths. In the early nineteenth century American women had an average of seven children compared to two children in the beginning of the 21st century. This abundant rate of birth was attributed to lack of reliable fertility control measures, and lack of education opportunities for American women. Also, the opportunities for American women to join the workforce was very limited, so they had ample time to breed and raise children. For example, the first colleges and co educational institutions for women were established in the mid-nineteenth century. The industrial revolution at the time increased demand for skilled workers which shifted population from farms into the urban areas where the industries were concentrated and workers trained. This led to increase in productivity and subsequently increase in wages. The higher wages enabled people to get married and have children at a younger age