Literature play a predominant role in generating their own

Literature
Review

 

Machinery has always been a big part of construction. The
Egyptians used crane like machinery that would have to be manually pulled to
create the Pyramids. However, now this has been created1 
in a broader scale with functioning cranes and other machinery, such as
forklifts.

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The rate of
innovation in construction equipment is measured by using two variables over a
30-year period, 1962–92: The number of new models introduced every year and the
technological life of eight earthmoving equipment are considered in this study.
The findings indicate that the rate of innovation in the construction equipment
industry increased in the 30-year study period. The findings also suggest that
these innovations are incremental in nature, stimulated by technological
advances in other industries, but primarily driven by market forces.
Technological advances are not confined to the industry that produces
innovations. The mapping of the interindustry flow of innovations highlights
that while construction companies play a predominant role in generating their
own technological innovations, they are also heavily dependent on other
industries, such as the construction equipment industry for the flow of
technical system innovations. As such, the continuous and incremental
innovations in the construction equipment industry are bound to act as a
catalyst for the generation of technological advances in the construction
industry. (Arditi, 2015)12 

 

How has machinery been used in the Construction industry
through History? The history of construction and how machines were introduced
to the industry

Machines were not used in construction until the late
1960’s, at this time they used mainly cables and winches. This meant it was much
harder to do some jobs because more simple machine designs were used, machines
such as cranes were functioned by just using rope. This was done until
hydraulic systems were put in place this made construction projects much more
efficient. This was when a lot of the old systems were abandoned like the
“small cable-operated shovel” for more effective machines. From than the
hydraulic system has evolved meaning the machinery in construction has
developed this is because their systems have become almost three times
stronger. As well as this the accuracy of builds have increased with the
improvement of hydraulic systems this even added to the durability and
reliability. (Bennink,
N/A) (Anon., n.d.)3 

 

Development of construction machinery

After the development of the first hydraulic excavators with
genuine Japanese technology in 1965, HCM Group has been developing
industry-leading technologies and products, such as being the world’s first to
equip construction machinery with satellite communication terminals in 2000,
and accumulating various core technologies related to construction machinery.

As part of the globalization of the market and changes to
the business environment, there have been large changes in the needs for
construction equipment and peripheral systems. Up until now systems development
was mainly centred on the domain of construction machinery itself and its
support networks, but these days systems development for total solutions
centred on equipment that is necessary, such as management systems for mining
sites and construction sites, and information network systems that connect
those systems to the equipment itself. (N/A, N/A)

(N/A, N/A)

https://www.hitachicm.com/global/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/05_en.pdf4 

This
source is very reliable as it is from a book and these normally contain a lot
of factual information however I do not have a lot of details on where the
source has come from for example the Author so I cannot research and find out
more about their past work to the validity of their writing. The source is from
Hitachi which is a very well-known company and they will not risk decreasing
their reputation this will mean they will be talking from a very neutral
perspective and write in a genuine way.5 

https://www.wiproinfra.com/portuguese/documents/Development_Hydraulics.pdf

(Ramesh, N/A)

I could not find a
lot of information on this Author meaning I could not find other reports or
articles from them however many of the points addressed by this source have
been back from previous sources I have found. As well as this the source has
been produced by Wipro infrastructure engineering this is a well-known company.6 

 

 

How machines changed in the modern day?

Simple machines have combined overtime to form more complex
machines • Developments of internal combustion and compression ignition engines
has replaced humans as source of power for machines.  Developments in materials such as rubber,
nylon, steel etc., have made mobile machines of today possible.

There was a
time in the construction industry when all blueprints were made by draftsmen
who drew freehand, when a crew had to build its own scaffolding for the
upper-story work, and when finding a foreman at the job site meant sending
runners to look for him.

Times have changed. With
computer-assisted-design software, a plan is changed by clicking a button
instead of scrubbing a line with an eraser. Hydraulic equipment carries people,
earth and materials with ease. Pagers and two-way cell phones make keeping track
of employees a breeze.

(Liaqat, N/A)7 

The
Author of this source is in the field of Construction, Architecture and Real
Estate and was a student, he now works as an Android Developer at D-Tech
systems. The source is not very reliable as it is not from a person with a lot
of experience in the field however a lot of the points made are similar to
other sources and seems factual.8 

 

https://www.bizjournals.com/louisville/stories/2002/12/23/story2.html9 

 

How is machinery used in the construction industry?

Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of a
boom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the
“house”). The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels.
Excavators are also called diggers. Excavators are used in many ways,  the digging of trenches, holes, foundations ,
material handling , brush cutting with hydraulic attachments, forestry work,
demolition, general grading/landscaping , heavy lifting and mining, especially,
but not only open-pit mining, river dredging and driving piles.

 

What machinery is used in the construction industry?

10 

 

Machineries effects on Safety

?       
People can be struck and injured by moving parts
of machinery or ejected material. Parts of the body can also be drawn in or
trapped between rollers, belts and pulley drives.

?       
Sharp edges can cause cuts and severing
injuries, sharp-pointed parts can cause stabbing or puncture the skin, and
rough surface parts can cause friction or abrasion.

?       
People can be crushed, both between parts moving
together or towards a fixed part of the machine, wall or other object, and two
parts moving past one another can cause shearing.

?       
Parts of the machine, materials and emissions
(such as steam or water) can be hot or cold enough to cause burns or scalds and
electricity can cause electrical shock and burns.

?       
Injuries can also occur due to machinery
becoming unreliable and developing faults or when machines are used improperly
through inexperience or lack of training.

 

PUWER

Select and
install plant and equipment properly, use it carefully, and make sure it is
maintained to meet the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998.

LOLER

Lifting
equipment and lifting operations are subject to additional requirements, including
periodic thorough examination, by the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regulations 1998.

Manufacture & supply of work
equipment

By design
and construction all work equipment must be safe and not give rise to risks to
health when first placed on the market or put into service.

Report a defective product

HSE and
other Market Surveillance Authorities have powers to take action where new
products are defective. 

Manufacture & supply of work
equipment

By design
and construction all work equipment must be safe and not give rise to risks to
health when first placed on the market or put into service.

http://www.hse.gov.uk/toolbox/machinery/safety.htm

http://www.hse.gov.uk/work-equipment-machinery/index.htm

http://journals.lww.com/joem/abstract/1977/02000/causes_of_death_among_construction_machinery.5.aspx

http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/buildinginsafety/health-safety.htm11 

Energy and costs

There are
numerous possibilities for a more efficient use of energy. Significant savings
can be realized through the proper selection of components for a machine tool
alone. Whether a CNC control should feature energy recovery to line power
depends on the frequency of tool changing during milling operations or
workpiece changes during turning. The regenerated energy is then available for
other consumers in the machine’s environment.

http://www.heidenhain.us/resources-and-news/aspects-of-energy-efficiency-in-machine-tools/12 

Risks

13 

By
comparison, total worker deaths only increased 0.3% in 2015, going from 4,821
to 4,836. For total private industry worker deaths, there was actually a
decrease from 4,386 occupational fatalities in 2014 to 4,379 in 2015, a
decrease of 0.15%.  The construction industry represented 19.4% of all
worker deaths in 2015 and 21.4% of all private industry worker deaths.

The fatal injury rate increased
from 9.8 per 100,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) workers in 2014 to 10.1 in
2015. For all workers, the fatal injury rate was relatively unchanged going
from 3.43 per 100,000 FTE in 2014 to 3.38 in 2015. For private industry, the
rate of fatal occupational injuries dropped from 3.7 per 100,000 FTE in 2014 to
3.6 in 2015.

Despite accounting for the highest
total of worker deaths, the construction industry ranked fourth in highest
fatal injury rates among all industries. Agriculture, forestry, fishing and
hunting had a fatal injury rate of 22.8 per 100,000 FTE followed by transportation
and warehousing at 13.8 and mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction at
11.4.

Of the four industries with the
highest fatal injury rates, construction was the only one to see an increase in
both fatal occupational injuries counts and rates. The other three industries
all decreased in total deaths and fatal injury rates from 2014 to 2015.14 

15 

 

https://www.constructconnect.com/blog/construction-news/construction-leads-industries-worker-deaths/16 

 

Environmental
effects of the machinery and development of machinery 17 

Air
Quality the potential effects on air quality and the related Project inter18 actions
during construction are overburden disturbance and construction equipment
operation. These are described in the following subsections.

The primary air quality concern during construction is the
impact of particulate matter on the surrounding environment. Particulate emissions
during the Project construction are associated with land clearing, blasting,
excavation, and backfilling operations.

The potential effects of particulates is influenced by site
and weather conditions (rain and wind direction) and by preventative measures
implemented during construction to minimize emissions. Emissions of
particulates that exceed air quality guidelines may result in problems on the
construction site and under special circumstances (such as strong winds) in
off-site areas as well. The generation of particulates at construction sites
depends on the silt content of the soils being disturbed, the proportion of dry
days, operator habits, construction vehicle type and speeds, vehicle weights,
and the number of vehicles.

https://www.blpc.com.bb/images/pdf/environmment/effectsAssessment-Construction.pdf

https://www.mainroads.wa.gov.au/Documents/Attachment%20B4%20Section%203%20EIA%20%5E26amp%5E3B%20EMP%20FX%20to%20Gogo%20Potential%20Environmental%20Impacts.u_3517983r_1n_D11%5E23324381.PDF 19 

Health effects of exposure from what machinery releases

?       
Respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and
mortality as well as lung cancer

?       
Reduced lung function (especially in children)

?       
There are also very strong links to early onset
dementia and autism

High air pollution levels can cause immediate health problems
including:

?       
Aggravated cardiovascular and respiratory
illness

?       
Added stress to heart and lungs, which must work
harder to supply the body with oxygen

?       
Damaged cells in the respiratory system

Long-term exposure to polluted air can have permanent health
effects such as:

?       
Accelerated aging of the lungs

?       
Loss of lung capacity and decreased lung
function

?       
Development of diseases such as asthma,
bronchitis, emphysema, and possibly cancer

?       
Shortened life span

Those most
susceptible to severe health problems from air pollution are:

?       
Individuals with heart disease, coronary artery
disease or congestive heart failure

?       
Individuals with lung diseases such as asthma,
emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

?       
Pregnant women

?       
Outdoor workers

?       
Older adults and the elderly

?       
Children under age 14

?       
Athletes who exercise vigorously outdoors

Disability glare, eye strain, loss of vision and
stress that people get from glare and spillovers are worth mentioning. Our eyes
naturally adjust during day and night so we can see things properly. Too much
light can harm our eyes and also the harm the hormones (such as melatonin) that
does this job.20 

http://www.llecp.org.uk/advice/health-impacts-construction-emissions

https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/06/20/noise-pollution.aspx

http://www.sparetheair.com/health.cfm?page=healthoverall

http://eschooltoday.com/pollution/light-pollution/effects-of-light-pollution.html21 

Why is machinery safety important?

? People can be hit and injured by moving parts of machinery or
ejected material. Parts of the body can also be drawn into or trapped between
rollers, belts and pulley drives.

 ?
Sharp edges can cause cuts and severing injuries, sharp-pointed parts can stab
or puncture the skin, and rough surface parts can cause friction or abrasion.

 ?
People can be crushed either between parts moving together or towards a fixed
part of the machine, wall or other object, and two parts moving past one
another can cause shearing.

 ?
Parts of the machine, materials and emissions (such as steam or water) can be
hot or cold enough to cause burns or scalds and electricity can cause
electrical shock and burns.

 ?
Injuries can also occur due to machinery becoming unreliable and developing
faults due to poor or no maintenance or when machines are used improperly
through inexperience or lack of training.

http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg291.pdf

http://www.gt-engineering.it/en/Insights/why-machinery-safety-is-so-important22 

 

Short term
and long term effects of machinery used in construction

Will the
increase of machinery cause a positive effect( should they be used for more
jobs).

Long term
effects of use of machinery

How can
improvement in machines change construction

Health effects
of increase of machinery in construction 23 

 

 

 

 

1 (Arditi, 2015) This source is from
a Technical paper about the changes in the construction equipment and how it
was introduced, this source is quite reliable as it is a report that has come
from research and coming to a conclusion. The function of the website is to
provide journals and reports based on different topics. The website is very
reliable as it has multiple reports and journals and it should be very valid as
it uses scientific research. The author of this Technical paper is a graduate
from a school of architecture and is working with a real estate investment and
development firm which is very well known.

 (Bennink, N/A)

This source
is from a website that I have not come across often meaning its reliability
should lower however The Author is a business graduate and is a field editor at
AC business media his responsibilities at him firm is to research and produce
articles on equipment and their changes and development so the Author is very
familiar with what he is writing as his job relates to the topic so it should
be very reliable and valid

 (Anon., n.d.)

This source
is from a well know website that explains all the positives and negatives in
construction and how they can be dealt with, this website is full of statistics
of the construction industry such as the construction jobs rebound and
accidents occurring in construction. So this is a very reliable source that has
a lot of valid and factual statements. The source is also not biased to certain
firms as they want to make people aware of the changes in the construction
industry and what can be done to make some changes.

 

what has? more detail needed

this is plagerised! You can not copy and past
large sections of other peoples work and reference it at the end. YOu must
write this in your own words and only reference key points.

you can not have two references together like
this. You need to reference the sentence that is used from another text
straight after the sentence not at the end of the paragraph. FIX. These must
also have footnote evaluations.

??? this is not harvard referencing – fix

?? this should be in your footnote evaluation

??? same as above

??? again this should be harvard referenced!

this should be in your footnote evaluation as
you did with your first source

?!!

this must be titled – e.g. figure one and also
Harvard referenced and footnote evaluated.

you must use Harvard referencing and footnote
evaluations Sharwin!

same as above

this must be titled – e.g. figure two and also
Harvard referenced and footnote evaluated.

references? this is not your own findings!

this must be titled – e.g. figure three and also
Harvard referenced and footnote evaluated.

?? you must reference properly. Please have a
look at the exemplar EPQs or see me if you do not know.

in this section you talk about a project. What
project are you referring too? you must describe this initially so your reader
is clear and you must reference this as you will be failed for plagiarising
otherwise.

??? does not make sense. rewrite.

again your must use harvard referencing!

again this has all be plagerised!

harvard reference!

same as above

incomplete