Ministry or excellent level in their KBAT. Many news

Ministry of Education is in the ongoing effort to develop education
in Malaysia align with the 21st century education to position
education in Malaysia as a globally enhanced education among other developed
country. Thus, government through Pelan Pembangunan Pembangunan Malaysia
2013-2025 (PPPM) introduced Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT) to produce a
highly productive citizen. It is to inculcate more critical thinking within
student self. As the technology advanced, it makes the source of information to
be unlimited. Todays’ students is not the same with students from few years
back. They live with a lot of usage of technology. Todays’ students are really
close with information as they can search it anytime. KBAT is said to be
appropriate to be executed and suitable with the lifestyle of students’ today.

            KBAT involves high
intellectual skill. This skill usually involves four upper domain of cognitive
of Bloom’s Taxonomy which are application, analyse, evaluation and creating.
KBAT also focus on the application of critical thinking, creative thinking,
logical thinking, reflective thinking and metacognitive. In a simple words, as
the students grasp the knowledge or information conveyed by the teacher, they
will process the information in their mind and present it in their own context
with their own style of knowledge presentation. It can be said that they have applied
creative and critical thinking (Apa Itu KBAT | Konsep & Teori
KBAT).

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            However, according
to The Reporter, the statistic is on the status of KBAT in school was obtained
and it is found that 60% of school which represents 169 schools were positioned
below the good and excellent level in their implementation of KBAT in classroom
while 40% of school which represents 113 schools attained good or excellent
level in their KBAT. Many news highlight in their headlines that teachers were
blame for this issue. It has to look into every aspect of why KBAT cannot reach
success towards its implementation. KBAT execution has potential to transform
todays’ citizen to be more critical and independent in their education but the
way it is implemented define students’ performance in school. It is not the
idea of KBAT is not suitable to be applied to students but it really depends on
how it is implemented align with students’ ability in learning.

            As KBAT start to
being implemented in school, the acceptance of teacher and students as the main
subject of this implementation is not really well. The culture practiced by the
member of education in school is contrary to the purpose of KBAT
implementation. Education in Malaysia have been practice exam-based learning
since a long time ago.  Zabani explained
that the approach that focus on examination and lesson that centred to answer
exam question makes the students’ needs to practice the knowledge obtained
based on the real context is abandoned (as cited
in Othman & Kasim, 2017). It is because Md Yusof Dawam found out
that students whose will sit for examination, teachers are prone to share
learning techniques that help students to memorize facts not to think
critically for their understanding. Plus, teacher have a lot of topic to cover
within the timeframe given so they will tend to speed up their teaching to
finish the syllabus before time or before examination. There is no additional
knowledge delivered by the teacher to widen students’ knowledge in mind. As a
result, students will struggle to understand what they have learnt.
Furthermore, since they are a passive learner, students become shy to ask
teacher regarding the topic if they are not clear about the topic learnt which
in turn make them to memorize not to understand. Only that way can save the
students from get the bad grade in their result. This will produce the students
that have strong memory and labelled as excellent students. While those who
have weak memory will be abandoned and labelled as weak and lazy students. That
is why when students finish their school, even though they are excellent
student, some of them cannot make it up for higher education and even worse not
being employed or survive in career life (as cited in Beremas Anak Inggit).

As the consequences, the product of education in school become not
critical as they are not practice independent learning due too much dependant
towards the teacher to spoon feed them their needs in learning.

As this culture is practiced in school, it becomes a shock to the
members of education in school because KBAT implementation change the existing
culture. KBAT demands for students’ critical thinking yet many students still
in the level of understanding according to Blooms’ Taxonomy of cognitive domain.
To reach higher order thinking skill, students need to pass six cognitive
domain which are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and
evaluation.

In teaching profession, the delivery of knowledge or lesson is
usually centred to teacher as teacher dominate the class where students act as
listener and receiver of knowledge delivered by teacher (Nasarudin, 2015). This method of teaching cause the process of
learning to be narrowed and not deep. This happen due to the curriculum designed
emphasize the students to learn for examination not for inculcate and increase
their thinking skill. Teacher who use this approach usually deliver the knowledge in the
form of notes to make it easy for students to memorize the subject content.
Unfortunately, students cannot discuss with their friends regarding the
subtopic taught by the teacher through the use of this method. Students also
got less encouragement from teacher to give their opinion during the lesson.
Hence, they learning will fully depends on teacher. They are only jot down the
notes wrote by the teacher on the whiteboard without having their own
additional notes and do the task given by their teacher and not doing
additional exercise on their own effort. For them to perform in their study,
they just read the notes or certain topic given by teacher as the topics will
come out in exam (Nasarudin, 2015).

 

KBAT becomes less performed in school also due to teachers are less
exposed to knowledge and skills to apply KBAT. It cause them not understanding
KBAT as a whole.  David & Ambotang
also confirmed in their study that lack of knowledge and exposure to KBAT is
the cause that hinder the success of KBAT. Zarin et al., and Zakaria (as cited
in Othman & Kasim, 2017) had justified in their study towards Pendidikan
Islam teacher that teachers’ use of teaching aids shows the needs for expose
KBAT more to teachers is not enough and need to be improved as David and
Ambotang said that source of teaching is limited. If the source for aids to
teach the students is not enough, it will affect students’ exploration on their
learning of subject matter to become limited because the sources are less
variety and getting less interesting.

Rajendran (2001) in his research on teachers’ readiness in
implement KBAT in teaching and learning process found out that teachers are
highly confident on their pedagogical skill to teach subject content in class
the way they usually do compare to pedagogical skill to teach through the use
of higher order thinking (as cited in Nasarudin,
2015). Teachers are better in their pedagogical skill to teach subject content
because they are trained since they were in their higher education. But to
teach higher order thinking is another thing. They need to have the capability
and enough capacity that qualifies them to teach the students. They need to be
creative, innovative and contented with deeper knowledge. All these
characteristics will help them to fit themselves to 21st century
classroom. More over, their challenge is bigger that they need to educate KBAT
or higher order thinking skill to the students that among them are passive and
dependant.

However, teachers’ attention towards improving
KBAT among students is a bit hindered by additional work assigned for them. For
this matter, Anwar (2017) said that teachers must be brought together into the
planning of their students’ education. Teacher is the one who always spend time
with their students in classroom. Anwar (2017) also highlight that teachers’
role suppose to be focus on sharing their knowledge with students. Instead,
they are added with continues load of work. Lots of task such as administrative
work, insert report and data online and organizing school activities cause
teachers’ work that suppose to develop students’ thinking is hindered. The
problem that they face in an ongoing effort to educate the students are not
being listened and action is not taken to help these teachers solve their
problem. This will affect their motivation to teach the students as their
spirit to keep educate the students becomes decrease. Teachers then put less
appreciation and practice on KBAT as they have limited time cause to lack of
training and development to increase their skill on teaching thinking skill to
students as David and Ambotang have highlight that teachers’ lack of training
and continues development on their skill is one of the factor of inefficient
implementation KBAT.

Therefore, the planning for KBAT implementation
need to have further thorough analysis. Ghazali believe that students need to
be tested from KBAR to KBAT. If students fail to master KBAR, it would be
harder for them to better their KBAT. Student who not master KBAR will not have
enough knowledge to be used in KBAT (Ghazali, 2016). Nor Hisyam in had
mention that the factor that cause the difficulties to apply KBAT in classroom
is poor planning in teaching that cause the failure in helping teacher to make
decision about students’ needs (Adam, 2015).

However, teachers’ teaching today gives challenge
in using the new way of approach and students’ learning. The obscurity on KBAT
itself creates the challenge. Support in term of infrastructure in classroom,
students’ different level of intelligence, lack of money support and parents’
support hinder the execution of KBAT to run smoothly as a whole because those
are also the important elements that contributes KBAT execution. For example,
not all parents will participate or involve in teachers’ effort and event to
develop the students which is their children. When they not involve in schools’
program that need their participation and help, it means they give less support
to school to improve their childrens’ education particularly on KBAT (KBAT
keperluan pendidikan abad 21, 2016). Some parents today
always come up with an issue that shows their unsatisfaction towards the way
teacher educate their children in school. As a parents, it is better that
parents and teacher co-operate and collaborate in the activity that can help
the students to improve their performance in school. It gives benefit to the
parents as they can know their children activity at school.

Minister of Education, Datuk Seri Mahdzir Khalid
affirmed that KBAT in school will better for the next three years because KBAT
cannot be expected to succeed in a short timeline. KBAT is process and it needs
time for the process to meet the outcomes. The failure of KBAT implementation
does not because of teacher, students or system because KBAT is a process. Thus
to achieve the objective of KBAT, teachers need to be trained continously to
really understand KBAT implementation as a whole (Bernama, 2017)

KBAT approach can be better with the substantial
support from parents and other member of education especially from the
higher-ups because kBAT itself has its strength to transform the education into
the next level. In KBAT, the element of application and innovation helps
students to be proactive and be competitive with people around them. KBAT
positive influence is that students will be confident with their point of view
and able to make their own decision. As a whole, KBAT helps students to be
independent in their learning. Before KBAT is executed, students depends on
their teacher in their learning but today KBAT teach them to be responsible
with their knowledge (KBAT keperluan
pendidikan abad 21, 2016).

KBAT need the practice of thinking to be made as a
culture in school. Thinking practice continuity is crucial so that students
later will brave enough to point out their opinion and their state of mind
during the lesson. If teacher use traditional method to teach students, teacher
may not know the current state of students’ mind yet what students have in mind
is important for teacher to know so that teacher can re-check their teaching
and improve their teaching and communication with the students. The culture of
thinking skills can be done by create an awareness to the importance of
thinking skill, change the mind set and practice (sadon, n.d.).

As PPPM introduced KBAT in education, its
expectation to succeed need a long term of execution. To achieve the aim of
PPPM, all parties need to work together especially teachers. Teachers need to prepare themselves with knowledge and skills
needed together with the new practices of teaching and learning that relevant
to the development and needs of 21st century.

Therefore, it is actually less of teacher preparedness
towards the KBAT implementation in classroom. But it is not teachers’ fault
that students are unable to grasp the concept of KBAT itself according to their
subject matter. It is just teachers need time and more training so that they
can gradually master on KBAT concept and its suitable way of  teaching method to be applied in classroom.