QUESTION in climate pattern of Pakistan. 1.3 · Earthquake

QUESTION 1: Climate Change

 

1.1

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            Climate
is defined as the average weather over longer time frames. The natural
greenhouse effect maintains the normal atmospheric temperature of Earth.
However, scientists have observed that since the beginning of 20th
century humans have contributed towards increase in greenhouse gases,
consequently resulting in change of global climate patterns and global warming
i.e. climate change. The main cause of global warming is the increased
concentration of greenhouse gases after the 18th century Industrial
Revolution.

 

1.2

 

·        
Floods
in the year 2010.

·        
Heatwave
in Karachi in the year 2015.

·        
2009 Karachi received 205 mm of
rain on 18 & 19 July. The normal rainfall at Karachi for the periods
1961-1990 is 85.5 mm.

·        
2001 heavy rainfall recorded in
Islamabad which caused flooding in Lainullah.

·        
1998-
2001 History’s worst drought gripped southern parts of
Pakistan and            parts of
surrounding countries.

 

All the
above listed events relate to increased precipitation/increase in rainfall or
decrease in rainfall and heatwaves that are caused by change in climate pattern
of Pakistan.

 

 

1.3

 

·        
Earthquake
in the year on 08th October, 2005.

·        
Baldia
town factory fire incidence in Karachi.

·        
Time
to time train collision/de-railing incidents in Pakistan

 

            The
above listed events are not due to climate change because Earthquake occurs due
to geographic movement of plates, the fire incident occurs due to poor safety
protocols and train de-railing / collision events occur due either to poor
communication or terrorist activities.

 

QUESTION 2:
Research Methodology

 

2.1

            I
read a research article on Climate Change and Resource Sustainability which is
available at https://www.cia-ica.ca/docs/default-source/2015/215068e.pdf

 

            The
article concludes that climate change has wide ranging effects on life on
earth. These effects are eminent and climate change events have occurred.
However, the author argues that there is a vital need that World as a whole
recognize this climate change and the countries that have more income and
caused much of the GHG emissions during last centuries must contribute more
towards controlling Global warming and GHG emissions. The author also predicts
that humanity will require a radical change as we move forward to achieve this
goal e.g. moving away from burning fossil fuels and effectively achieving zero
carbon emissions.

 

2.2

            I
got interested in joining in GCISC after going through its advertisement which
clearly mentioned that this job is Research Based and the Centre will support
for Higher Studies. I have the ambition to study further and do Masters in Data
Analytics, unfortunately, which I was unable to pursue due to limited financial
resources. Data Analysis is a very important field which can help getting a
consolidated output/conclusion from inputs of various data fields. I expect
that being part of this organization will help to achieve my goals i.e. to
pursue my studies and analyze various forms of data to achieve a better
understanding.

 

QUESTION 3:
Science and Technology

 

3.1

            Pakistan
has great human resource and potential to achieve scientific and technological
development. The main cause of not achieving the desired output in Science and
Technology is due to lack of funds granted in the research field. Moreover,
Pakistan is a developing economy and a major portion of our economy is consumer
based, therefore, the existing industry contributes little to none in the
research field. Apart from that, Pakistan is also a victim of brain drainage.
The best human resource is attracted by major World Economies and these
professionals are contributing in technology and development of developed
Nations.

 

3.2

 

            The
Automobile/Transport technology has affected adversely to climate. In 2015 a
conference was held in Islamabad on “Paving the way for Sustainable Transport in
Pakistan”, which concluded that transport sector is a major contributor in
Pakistan towards greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, generation of
green energy has affected most positively towards climate change. Generation of
electricity through solar panels and other renewable sources will shift the
overall dependence from bio-fuels / fossils towards green energy.

 

QUESTION 4:
Pakistan’s Current Affairs

 

4.1

 

Pakistan’s current population is
207.774 million as per the 2017 population census carried out in Pakistan. The
annual growth rate comes out to be 2.4% over a period of 1998-2017. Pakistan
has the highest rate of population growth in South Asian countries.

 

4.2

 

·        
Environmental
degradation occurs

·        
Family
food is limited as the demand increases.

·        
Poor
people bear burden of population growth.

·        
Large
population limit educational opportunities

·        
Over
urbanization and illegal migration.

 

4.3

 

·        
Additional
global warming due to land change use.

·        
Generation
of more greenhouse gases.

·        
Resource
depletion water, oil, fisheries etc.

·        
More
garbage, garbage disposal will be a big problem.

 

4.4

 

·        
Easy
access to birth control

·        
Better
economic and educational opportunities for women.

·        
Improving
sex and relationship education in schools.

 

 

QUESTION 5:
National and International Policies

 

5.1

 

            Major goal of the Paris Agreement is that
ecosystems, biodiversity, and land use can play in reducing greenhouse gas
emissions and helping communities and countries reduce risks and adapt to
climate change impacts. In the Paris Agreement Government is obliged to
formulate National Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and also adapt to the impacts of climate change in the context of
coordinated global action.

 

5.2

 

            INDC
stands for Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. This document is
submitted to UNFCCC because the said organization monitors how various
countries are abiding to the MEAs.

 

5.3

 

            Major
portion of greenhouse gas is Carbon Dioxide and water vapors. Pakistan needs
money to reduce greenhouse emissions because it has to shift from conventional
energy resources to towards green energy resources. And as a developing country
it cannot afford at its own cost.