Realism (neo)realists argue that in an anarchical society, the

            Realism has generally been the dominant theory in IR,
therefore it is logical to begin by outlining the key features of its approach
to anarchy. Notorious realists like Machiavelli and Morgenthau argue that human
nature is fundamentally flawed and thus prone to conflict and leading to war (Weber,
2005). However, neo-realists such as Waltz define anarchy as a condition of
possibility for or permissive cause of war, by arguing that wars occur because
there is nothing to prevent them (1959). Indeed, even Hobbes had stated that
the fundamental cause of war is not historic rivalries, but the absence of an
international government; in other words, the anarchy of sovereign states
(Wight, 2002). Nonetheless, (neo)realists argue that in an anarchical society,
the main goal of a state is to ensure its own survival by increasing its power
and putting its interests ahead of other states. The international system is a
‘self-help’ system where states are obliged to look after themselves, be
concerned with their own security and consequently creating a security dilemma
(Brown & Ainley, 2009). Henceforth, Waltz’s myth that ‘international anarchy is the permissive cause of war’ is supported
by the fundamental assumptions that the world is composed of sovereign states,
that there is no world government, and thus that international politics is
anarchical. Based on these assumptions, (neo)realists predict that sovereign
nation-states in a system of international anarchy will behave conflictually,
as conflict is assumed to be an ineradicable consequence of interaction between
international actors (Jasinski, 2016). There is no way out of international
anarchy, as the idea of a world government is unrealistic because states will
never be secure and trusting enough to give up their power (Weber, 2005). Moreover,
realists claim that in a self-help system where all states possess inherent
offensive capabilities and the ability to destroy other states, the
international system is under constant fear and threat of war. Given this,
occasional wars are inevitable because of the security dilemma (Jasinski, 2016).