The are Donut, Éclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream

The android operating
system is fundamentally an operating system intended for mobiles
and is quickly acquiring market, with loads of smart phones and tablets. It is
mobile operating system that practices a revised version of the Linux kernel
2.6. Google has developed Android as part of the Open Handset Agreement.
Android has the leading market share amongst all Smartphone operating system.

Android is a modern mobile platform that is designed to be truly open
source. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices,
based on the Linux kernel, and developed by Google and later the Open Handset
Alliance. Open source platform requires robust security architecture to provide
security. Android is designed with multi layered security. September
20th 2008 was the date when Google released the first Android OS by the name of
“Astro”. After some time next upgraded versions “Bender” and “Cupcake” were
also released. Google then implemented the style of naming android versions
after any dessert or a sweet in alphabetical order. The other releases are
Donut, Éclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich and Jelly
Bean, Kitkat, Lolipop, Marshemellow, Nougat. Nougat is so far the latest
android version from google. Since the platform is not closed like IOS, there
are countless android apps built by developers. 
Just after treading into the smart phone and
tablets market Android gained gigantic fame due to its attractive appearance
and resourceful working. Various innovative features were presented which
played a substantial role in Android’s achievement. Google Play is an official
app market which holds millions of different apps for android devices. Several
top manufacturers are using Android in their devices. Android software
development and the Google Play Market are open and unobstructed. So both
developers and users have more flexibility and independence, but also generates
major security challenges. Currently Android is one of the top operating
systems and is considered a serious threat for iPhone.Android is apprising day by day since its
release. The updates essentially focusing on fixing bugs and adding new
topographies to deliver friendlier environment. Usually each new version of the
Android operating system is established under a code name based on a dessert
item. The most recent released versions of Android are:

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2.0/2.1 (Eclair), which refurbished the user interface and presented
HTML5 and Exchange ActiveSync 2.5 support.  

2.2 (Froyo), which presented speed improvements with JIT implementation,
and added Wi-Fi hotspot tethering and Adobe Flash support. 

2.3 (Gingerbread), which polished the user interface, improved the soft
keyboard and copy/paste features, and further support for Near Field
Communication.

3.0
(Honeycomb), which supports larger screen devices and announces many new user
interface features like private browsing and HTTP live streaming, and supports
multicore processors and hardware acceleration for graphics. Some new features
added to the Smartphone’s Such as photo enhancements, network data, offline email
searching, usage monitoring and facial recognition unlock. 

4.0 (Ice
Cream Sandwich) introduced New lock
screen actions, Improved text input and spell-checking, Control over network
data, Email app supports EAS v14, WI-FI direct, Bluetooth Health Device
Profile.

4.1,4.2,4.3(Jelly
Bean) has introduced Google Now, Voice Search, Speed enhancements, Gesture
Typing, for faster typing, 4K resolution support, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
support, Security and performance enhancements. 

4.4
(KitKat) presented Screen recording, New Translucent system UI, Enhanced
notification access, System-wide settings for closed captioning. KitKat debuted
on Google’s Nexus 5, and was enhanced to run on a larger range of devices than
earlier versions.

5.0/5.1.1(Lollipop) introduced with Speed improvement, Battery
consumption improvement, Multiple SIM cards support, Stability and performance
enhancements.  

6.0 (Marshmallow) presented USB Type-C support, Fingerprint
Authentication support, Better battery life with “deep sleep”, MIDI
support, Google Now improvements.

Beautiful UI: Android
OS basic screen provides a beautiful and spontaneous user interface.

Storage:
SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes. 

Connectivity: Android supports connectivity technologies including
GSM EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EVDO, UMTS, Bluetooth, WI-Fi, LTE, NFC and WI MAX.

Messaging:
SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messaging
and Android Cloud to Device Messaging and now enhanced version of C2DM, Android
Google Cloud Messaging is also a part of Android Push Messaging service.   Media Support: It supports H.263, H.264, MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, AAC,
HE-AAC, AAC 5.1, MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, and BMP.

 Multiple language support: Android supports multiple languages.

Multi-Tasking: User can
jump from one task to another and same time various application can run
simultaneously.

Web browser:
The web browser available in Android is based on the open- source Web Kit
layout engine, coupled with Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine.  

Java support: While most Android applications are written in Java,
there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not
executed.

Multi-touch:
Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available
in handsets such as the HTC Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the
kernel level. After the update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid
multi-touch enables natively.

Bluetooth: Supports
A2DP, AVRCP, sending files, accessing the phone book, voice dialling and
sending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick support is
available in Android 3.1+. 

Tethering:
Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as wireless/wired
Wi-Fi hotspot.

 Screen capture: Android supports capturing a screenshot by pressing
the power and volume-down buttons at the same time.

 Resizable widgets: Widgets are resizable, so users can expand them to show more content or
shrink them to save space.

 Wi-Fi Direct: A technology that
alllow apps determine and pair straight, over a high-bandwidth peer-to-peer
connection.

 Android Beam: A popular
NFC-based technology that lets users instantly share, just by touching two
NFC-enabled phones together.

Applications
which enrich the functionality of devices, are developed in Java Language using
the Android software development kit. Once developed, Android applications can
be bundled simply and sold out either through Google Play. Google Play Store is the primary application
store installed on Android devices that comply with Google’s compatibility
requirements and license the Google Mobile Services software. Android commands
nearly all mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. It is
the leading installed OS of any mobile platform and growing fast. Average 1
million new Android devices are activated worldwide.

 

Android has a
developing range of third-party applications, which can be acquired by users by
downloading and installing the application’s APK file, or by downloading using
Google Play Store. Google Play Store permits users to browse, download, update
and remove applications published by Google and third-party developers.

The open nature of Android and its large
user base have made it an attractive and gainful platform to attack. Common
exploits and tool kits on the OS can be utilized across a wide number of
devices. Attackers can perform exploits and reuse attack vectors. Google
analysed measures in the development of the  
Android kernel to build security methods. The OS is sandboxed,
preventing malicious processes from crossing between applications. At the same
time as this attempt to exclude the perception of infection is commendable in
some regards, it flops to solve the problem of infection totally. Android is a
target of its own victory. One of the reasons the OS succeeded in acquiring
market segment so quickly is that it is open source.

The
widespread backing from large companies, especially Google, have made Android
one of the most important competitors in the mobile sector. I have learned
through my research that Android is a much more diverse operating system than
iOS and Windows Phone Mobile. Android has grown swiftly over the past 4 years
becoming the maximum used smartphone operating system in the world. It’s
because Android doesn’t release 1 phone from 1 company with 1 new OS every
year, but incalculable phones from several companies, having their own twist,
during the year. Android’s ability to customize is incomparable to any other Mobile
Operating System