The processing plane. This causes the controller to not

The mechanism of Software defined networking provides automation
of network services by

abstraction of the lower-level functionalities. This happens by
segregating the control and data

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plane of the base systems running the configuration. This causes
less complication of the

network understanding and provides less running of the brain horse
power for figuring and

configuration of the network devices. This new
technology provides a quintenssial way to manage the network. Here the packets
are not processed by
switch and are simply looked in the flow table of the required entry. The SDN controller
is at the heart of the system and acts as the operating system of the
architecture. If there is no match found by the switch then the packets are transferred
to the controller and it decides whether to keep the package or not . This helps in dividing the
forwarding and processing. If the link or bridge between the data and control plane is lost then the
network looses processing plane. This causes the controller to not be incharge anymore and the
entire architecture goes down . One of the possibilities that can cause the controller to be
unreachable is a Mirai malware attack. Mirai is a type of malware that
automatically finds Internet of Things devices to infect and conscripts them
into a botnet—a
group of computing devices that can be centrally controlled. From there this
IoT army can be used to mount distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. In which,
a large number of packets are sent to a host or a group of hosts in a network.

If the source addresses of the incoming packets are spoofed, which is usually
the case, the switch will not find a match and has to forward the packet to the
controller. The collection of legitimate and DDoS spoofed packets can bind the
resources of the controller into continuous processing up to the point where
they are completely exhausted. This will make the controller unreachable for
the newly arrived legitimate packets and may bring the controller down causing
the loss of the SDN architecture. Even if there is a backup controller, it has
to face the same challenge. The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices,
vehicles, home appliances, and other
items embedded with electronics, software,
sensors and network connectivity which enable these objects to
connect and exchange data.

Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its computing system but is able to inter-operate within the
existing Internet
infrastructure.