The they had to go back to the drawing

The factors that had to be considered to achieve space
flight:

The minimum speed an object needs to go
without force and can move away from the gravitational pull without any
friction. This is called escape velocity. On Earth, the escape velocity is
about 11.2 km/s. However, at 9,000 km altitude in “space”, it is
slightly less than 7.1 km/s.In order to break form earths gravitational
field the spaceship must be going at a certain speed. So the space craft needs
to be travelling 11kilometers per second to enter orbit.

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Going out into to space has not always gone to plan for
example, the Apollo 1 was the first ever mission that contained a real living
crew. Astronauts Virgil Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee lost their
lives to a fire that swept through the command room.  This was a major setback for NASA as they had
to go back to the drawing boards.

Future
astronauts need to experience several hours of preparing. This is part into
three fundamental areas. To begin with, newcomers who need to qualify as space
explorers need to pass a one-year course of fundamental preparing. The
applicants find out about space technology and science, essential medical
skills, and how the International Space Station functions. They additionally
get comfortable with scuba diving. After this initial segment, they go ahead to
one more year of cutting edge preparing. They learn in more insight about the
different parts of the ISS, the analyses and the way vehicles works, and the
inclusion of ground control. They would then be given assigned mission.  The issue of preparing astronauts is that it
cost a lot.

Unmanned spaceships are less expensive than manned spacecraft,
and safer, as they do not have live crew. It is extremely hard to repair an
unmanned spaceship in Earth’s orbit, and impossible once it leaves earth atmosphere.
So the segments are intended to be reliable and rugged. In any case, history
demonstrates that systems in unmanned shuttle do come up short. This may imply
that parts of the mission can’t be finished. Sometimes the entire mission is
lost.

Materials the vehicle is made from and their properties

The first rule is that a spaceship does not need to be heavy
to be strong. The materials that the spaceship is made out of are mostly
durable alloys like titanium, aluminium and magnesium. The space craft is made
up of four parts. The different parts of the structure are the payload,
guidance and the propulsion.The payload system of a spaceship depends on the spaceship’s
mission.The guidance system of a spaceship may include very sophisticated
sensors, on-board computers, radars, and communication equipment to manoeuvre the
spaceship in flight.There are two main classes of propulsion systems, liquid spaceship
engines and solid spaceship engines.

Fins are attached to some spaceships at the bottom of the
frame to provide stability during the flight.The skin may be coated with a
thermal protection system to keep out the heat of air friction during flight
and to keep in the cold temperatures needed for certain fuels and oxidizers.The
frame is made from very strong but lightweight materials, like titanium or
aluminium, and usually employs long “stringers” which run from the
top to the bottom which are connected to “hoops” which run around the
circumference. The nozzle is used in
a spaceship to accelerate hot exhaust to produce thrust. The amount of thrust
produced by the engine depends on the mass flow rate through the engine, the
exit velocity of the flow, and the pressure at the exit of the engine.

The fuels used in a Spaceship

Propellant is another word for fuel which is used by spaceship
and get sit speed by burning at enormous pressure chamber using oxidizer which
gives the space ship its power and energy to go out to space. Different spaceships
have various propellants for different mission considering the ease of
ignition, combustion stability, temperature, toxicity cost, and availability.
Propellant come in various forms either sold, liquid or gas, with each of them
having their own positive and negative aspects. The mostly used one is the
liquid  propellant by the NASA launch as
it contains hydrogen and oxygen for the second stage ( solid for the first
stage) in order to reach the space station.

The cost of a spaceship is $1.9billoin just to assemble, a
case of this is the Antares constructed by NASA and it cost about £40million
every launch in 2008. $1.5 billion is the cost of the space craft for every
flight as indicated by the NASA shuttle flight of its lifetime project expenses
as per new discoveries secured by 131 shuttle missions propelled at a period
somewhere around 1982 and 2010.

Space craft use radio waves signal as a means of
communication and a transmitter and receivers for interpreting the information
they received. These radio waves signals are received on earth but are
sometimes weak. But the NASA space shuttle has a very big radio wave receiver
for space missions that must be aimed precisely to get to the information and
must also aim transmissions to spacecraft in order for the ships to hear the
messages. Loss of signal in space can cause failure to the DS1 equipment in
terms of collision and the receiving equipment on earth can be damaged.
Communication becomes difficult as the spaceship travels further. This is
majorly caused by how radio waves behave by losing one another in projection to
their antennae.

The shape and design of a spaceship air flow, stability and
drag effect is called aerodynamics. A spaceship has a nose cone and a fin which
are designed to reduce air resistance and to provide stability so that the spaceship
can move in the right direction.

The nose cone shape controls the amount of air resistance
that opposes the spaceship’s motion. If the diameter of a spaceship is too
large, it will have more drag due to the fact that air will be pushed out of
the way due to large frictional force. But on the other hand, fins are mostly
used in small spaceships to provide stability and control its direction.

The strength of a spaceship can be expanded significantly
further when its centre of mass (where the mass of an article is said to be
concentrated) moves closer to the nose cone end when more mass is included.
Furthermore for the security of a spaceship, its focal point of pressure must
be closer to its tail than the inside of mass.

 As both centres of
mass and pressure increases, the stability also increases as well, but both
forces can’t be equalled as it will cause the spaceship to flip. Increasing the
stability also increases drag effect, thus, so normal size of fins must be
produced in order for the spaceship to have enough stability by reducing drag
effect.

The nose cone and blades of a spaceship are intended to
minimize air resistance and to give dependability and control to keep it
pointing in the right direction without wobbling.

 To prepare someone
for space flight, it would take a long time and a lot of money because of the
high tech equipment they would have to use to get similar to what the
spacecraft would look like, the other problem is that would have to learn other
languages because the different backgrounds. First, the new people that want to
become an astronaut would have to do a one year training course that includes
space technology and science, basic medical skills, and how the international
space station works. They would also be trained on how to scuba dive so they
get use to flouting and working at the same time. After this, they would go
into another year of advance training. Meaning that they would learn more
detail about the different part of the ISS. 
Swiftly following, the young astronauts would assign to mission where
they would have to work with other crew members.

The use of spaceflight research has help use creates things
like:

1.      
Air-cushioned trainers-

In the early 1980s NASA used a methods call
blow rubber moulding to make their helmets. Using their technology, Nike used
their shock absorbing material to cushion the impact on runner’s feet.

2.      
Better sunglasses –

NASA created a special coating that is
created from diamond shape carbon to protect from practical that is space from scratching
the helmet.  Companies like Ray-Ban use
this in their glasses because of the decrease surface friction, meaning it
reduces scratching.  

3.      
Baby food-

Through NASA research they found a certain
algae that contained two essential fatty acid that is found in breast milk,
which is essential for infants.   

Effect

Blood
circulation

When the body is on Earth, the cardiovascular system circulates
fluids through the body, from the top to the bottom, working against gravity to
prevent blood from pooling in the legs and bring blood to the brain. But, when
the body is in out of space, the cardiovascular system doesn’t work as
efficiently and as hard as it should be. This triggers a fluid shift. The fluid
in the body doesn’t really circulate the body but they move up away from the
lower part of the body. The blood rises up to the chest and the head.
Astronauts experience puffy faces, heads, nasal congestion and skinny legs as a
result.

Kidney
stones and Bone loss are very common as an important problem for astronauts to
overcome during extended stays in space. Crew members involves in physical
exercise for two and a half hours a day, six times a week while in orbit to
avoid any problems and issues. However, the dangers of these problems happening
cannot be completely removed through physical exercise.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis causes bones to become less dense
and more fragile. Some people are more at risk than others for example
astronauts. The loss of bone
mass that many people experience in space could eventually weaken the bone and
so present problems when the person returns to a weight-bearing environment for
example if the person comes back down to Earth. This image shows normal
vertebrae and a vertebrae suffering from osteoporosis. The first one looks
healthy and strong where as the other one looks weak and crocked. I can tell
this by looking at the amount of spaces between the bones.

In the
body, liquid called plasma makes up about half of the content of blood. What
plasma contains are proteins that help blood to clot and transport substance
through the blood.

The benefit of going to space is
that NASA has created footwear
which helps competitors to run better with a lighter sole which gives a more
steady capacity. Likewise it gives the client comfort while wearing the
footwear. Having less weight onto the footwear gives the client or competitors
to run better as opposed to having a substantial weight which gives the client
some major difficulty to run and move and the weight would make them feel tired
all the more rapidly. Likewise having minor gaps around the footwear permits
air to course through it. In the event that there were no gaps on the footwear,
it would be truly airless and the client’s foot would be sweaty which gives them
discomfort.

Space travel