When against Russia that led to political complications and,

When
Leonid Brezhnev, leader of the Soviet Union, first declared to the
*world the doctrine by which the Soviet Union would invade and uproot
any country struggling against the communist yoke in Eastern Europe*,
neither Brezhnev nor the world had any idea of the repercussions that
would result from this. Not only would Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan
be invaded by the doctrine’s implementations, but several other
countries not directly influenced including a rivaled communism in
East Asia would take a defensive stance against Russia that led to
political complications and, ultimately, the sequential collapse of
communism in Eastern Europe.

The first
term in need of scrutiny is the Brezhnev Doctrine itself. Introduced
after the Prague Spring in 1968, the doctrine stated the USSR would
not permit any country in Eastern Europe to reject communism. This
bold backing of the countries involved in the Warsaw Pact, (and later
even in countries not in the Warsaw Pact) led to the Soviet Union
assuming responsibility over the internal affairs of these countries
and severely limited the independence of these countries.+-
Implementation of this policy was a major cause for strained
relations with the US and was seen as direct retaliation against the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) organized just 6 years
prior.+- Shortly after the Brezhnev Doctrine was fabricated,
500,000 troops invaded Czechoslovakia and deposed of the leadership
that was responsible for the social reforms that competed with the
Soviet Union’s agenda.
Provide
background on NATO and Warsaw pact:
After
the events of World War II, the focus of the United States shifted to
the state of a European nation ravished by war, and the
looming threat of communist expansion across the weakened nations.
The Soviet Union wasted no time in asserting its influence in the
surrounding nations. The communist party made huge leaps of progress
in nations such as Italy, and a Soviet Union sponsored coup in
Czechoslovakia brought another communist nation onto the European
scene. Testing the western nations even further, Stalin implemented a

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After
the events of World War II left Europe in a state of uncertainty, and
due to conflicts* arising between eastern(including the USSR) and
western Europe, the Western countries sought to implement a solution
that would ensure physical and political security. This was conceived
in the form of the Brussels Treaty, signed by Great Britain, France,
Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in March of 1948. This pact
gave the assurance of collective security among the participating
nations; that if any single nation was attacked (research events that
caused Western Europe to become concerned about their security) the
others were obligated to assist in protecting it. Shortly afterwards,
the Truman administration proposed that the United states seek a
security treaty between Western Europe and thus the North Atlantic
treaty was negotiated. . . . The addition of West Germany to this
alliance led to the Soviet Union retaliating with the Warsaw Pact
establishing their own regional coalition between their satellite
states in Eastern Europe.
The
creation of the Warsaw Pact led to many greater consequences later in
the cold war that contributed to the eventual collapse of the Soviet
Union and communism in Eastern Europe as a whole.
Invasion
of Czechoslovakia:
In
Czechoslovakia, there was an increasing amount of collective
dissatisfaction with the social injustice imposed by communism, and
there was a liberal movement within the country that led to a change
in leadership and subsequent social reforms. After fourth months of a
reformed country, Brezhnev declared that the Soviet Union would not
allow for any country of the Warsaw Pact to denounce communism, and
that Czechoslovakia was in violation of these conditions. With this
mindset, the USSR decided to mobilize troops from Hungary, Poland,
East Germany and Bulgaria into Prague and other major cities to
quickly seize control over the situation, and to restore conservative
communist rule within Czech borders. Although the invasion was
condemned by the U.S., their resources and focus were wholly on the
conflict in Vietnam, and so they ordered no intervention to take
place. The Soviet Union arrested Dubcek as well as other leaders and
replaced them with more conservative leadership. Although Eastern
European unity was preserved, the Soviet invasion was the start of a
decade’s long period of Soviet intervention that eventually led to
its demise.

Soviet
Invasion of Afghanistan:
In
order to understand why the Soviet Union’s failed invasion of
Afghanistan was so detrimental to the Soviet Union and the communist
bloc of Europe as a whole, one needs to understand not only the
reason that the intercession did not fix the situation, but the
reasoning behind the decision for military intervention in the first
place.
Before
1978, it is almost certain that Afghanistan had little support from
the Soviet Union. “Quote”. The USSR rarely took action,
especially military action, concerning nations other than those
outside of the Warsaw Pact. However, in the spring of 1978, the
government of Afghanistan was overthrown by communist militants, who
wrested the authority from President Mohammed Daud Khan. Daud Khan
had fought to overthrow the country’s monarchy in 1973 and
established Afghanistan as a Republic. He had worked to lessen
Afghanistan’s dependency during his reign and this worked until the
military coup deposed him in 1978. The newly communist nation
garnered precious little support from among the generally
anti-communist people. Religion had much deeper roots and a firmer
grasp on the populous than did politics. The regime quickly created
close ties with the Soviet Union, implemented unpopular social
reforms, and snuffed out internal opposition, leading to domestic
insurgencies within the country. When the facts are examined, it
seems clear why such democratic reforms garnered such intense
opposition from within the people. Religion had much deeper roots and
a firmer grasp on a great majority of the populous than did
newfangled politics, especially those of a communist nature. These
Islamic insurgency groups became altogether known as the mujahideen,
(“those who engage in jihad”) waged a fierce holy war against the
government. The leader in place proved to be very radical in his
approach to policy and it became clear that the situation was getting
out of control very quickly. When ambassadors failed to negotiate any
change in the government, the Soviet Union decided that it was
necessary, in order to preserve Afghanistan from Western influence,
to depose the current leader of the party in favor of a much more
trusted head to help guide the lost state to a Soviet-backed
communistic state. Desperate to save their faltering new communist
allies, in 1979, the Soviet Union sent thousands of troops into the
borders of Afghanistan to invade the capital of Kabul in order to
wrest power back from the current head.. The USSR plunged itself into
a struggle to maintain Afghanistan as a communist-friendly power for
over ten years. This event was a critical point in the development of
the cold war, and was one of the most apparent consequences of the
Brezhnev Doctrine which led to the downfall of the Soviet Union.
There were a multitude of reasons that the invasion of Afghanistan
failed to secure it as another Soviet satellite nation. One major
impedance to the Soviet agenda in Afghanistan pertains the
deeply-imbedded religious background of the region. ~The Soviets
could never have realized how the cultural roots of the area would
turn the quarreling “warlords” against the Soviet Union as a
common enemy of their state~.
***According
to a disclosed intelligence assessment made by the CIA in 2000, the
initial invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union is estimated to
have cost 15 billion rubles, or about 50 billion USD.
Discuss
the economic effect of war in Afghanistan on Soviet Union.
The
invasion of Afghanistan damaged the USSR in more ways than one. The
Soviet Union had already earned a bad reputation across the world for
its foreign policy during the ^time period^. Once again the USSR had
attempted to ensure the development of a friendly communist state and
it had turned against them.

Soviet
Involvement in Cuba:

The
USSR’s implementation of their foreign policy did not solely extend
to those countries within their sphere of influence on their
continent. After the events taking place in Cuba led to a political
upheaval led by Fidel Castro, the Soviet Union took a strategic
interest in the Latin American nation. Not only could Cuba be a
nation that would increase the communist global presence and
prestige, but there were great economic opportunities associated with
an ally in Latin America. A CIA intelligence review in 1960 showed
just how expansive the economic relationship between the USSR and
Cuba would become:
“In
the economic field, the agreements announced in the 12 February
Soviet-Cuban communique also reflect the USSR’s reappraisal of its
attitude toward the Castro government. As these agreements, which
deal with major Cuban exports and imports, are fulfilled, the USSR
will be able to achieve considerable economic influence in Cuba. The
Soviet purchase of nearly 5,000,000 tons of Cuban sugar in the next
five years, if carried out, will absorb up to 20 percent of Cuba’s
sugar exports in that period. Previous Soviet purchases, ranging from
200,000 to 450,000 tons annually, have accounted for only 3 to 8
percent of such exports in any one year.”

Soviet
involvement with Cuba skyrocketed over this short period of time, and
the Soviet Union became Cuba’s main source of manufactured goods and
appliances after trade with the United States was complicated by
US-imposed embargoes. The economic system of Soviet communism,
however, is also a main reason why the effectiveness was minimal in
Cuba. Journalist and author Andres Oppenheimer had the opportunity to
make several month long trips to Cuba from 1989 to 1991, and discuss
with top officials and common citizens alike the state of Cuba in
light of the Soviet bloc. He recorded his findings and conversations
in his book, “Castro’s
Final Hour”. In his
book he describes all of the result of Soviet communism in Cuba, and
how it has slowly been driven down. Communism as it was implemented
by the USSR did not prove to be very sustainable financially for
satellite nations such as Cuba.